# 15.2 Energy in simple harmonic motion  (Page 3/8)

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## Oscillations about an equilibrium position

We have just considered the energy of SHM as a function of time. Another interesting view of the simple harmonic oscillator is to consider the energy as a function of position. [link] shows a graph of the energy versus position of a system undergoing SHM.

The potential energy curve in [link] resembles a bowl. When a marble is placed in a bowl, it settles to the equilibrium position at the lowest point of the bowl $\left(x=0\right)$ . This happens because a restoring force    points toward the equilibrium point. This equilibrium point is sometimes referred to as a fixed point . When the marble is disturbed to a different position $\left(x=+A\right)$ , the marble oscillates around the equilibrium position. Looking back at the graph of potential energy, the force can be found by looking at the slope of the potential energy graph $\left(F=-\frac{dU}{dx}\right)$ . Since the force on either side of the fixed point points back toward the equilibrium point, the equilibrium point is called a stable equilibrium point    . The points $x=A$ and $x=\text{−}A$ are called the turning points . (See Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy .)

Stability is an important concept. If an equilibrium point is stable, a slight disturbance of an object that is initially at the stable equilibrium point will cause the object to oscillate around that point. The stable equilibrium point occurs because the force on either side is directed toward it. For an unstable equilibrium point, if the object is disturbed slightly, it does not return to the equilibrium point.

Consider the marble in the bowl example. If the bowl is right-side up, the marble, if disturbed slightly, will oscillate around the stable equilibrium point. If the bowl is turned upside down, the marble can be balanced on the top, at the equilibrium point where the net force is zero. However, if the marble is disturbed slightly, it will not return to the equilibrium point, but will instead roll off the bowl. The reason is that the force on either side of the equilibrium point is directed away from that point. This point is an unstable equilibrium point.

[link] shows three conditions. The first is a stable equilibrium point (a), the second is an unstable equilibrium point (b), and the last is also an unstable equilibrium point (c), because the force on only one side points toward the equilibrium point.

The process of determining whether an equilibrium point is stable or unstable can be formalized. Consider the potential energy curves shown in [link] . The force can be found by analyzing the slope of the graph. The force is $F=-\frac{dU}{dx}.$ In (a), the fixed point is at $x=0.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m}\text{.}$ When $x<0.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m,}$ the force is positive. When $x>0.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m,}$ the force is negative. This is a stable point. In (b), the fixed point is at $x=0.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m}\text{.}$ When $x<0.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m,}$ the force is negative. When $x>0.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m,}$ the force is also negative. This is an unstable point.

position, velocity and acceleration of vector
A rail way truck of mass 2400kg is hung onto a stationary trunk on a level track and collides with it at 4.7m|s. After collision the two trunk move together with a common speed of 1.2m|s. Calculate the mass of the stationary trunk
is the eye the same like the camera
I can't understand
Suraia
Josh
I think the question is that ,,, the working principal of eye and camera same or not?
Sardar
yes i think is same as the camera
what are the dimensions of surface tension
samsfavor
why is the "_" sign used for a wave to the right instead of to the left?
why classical mechanics is necessary for graduate students?
classical mechanics?
Victor
principle of superposition?
principle of superposition allows us to find the electric field on a charge by finding the x and y components
Kidus
Two Masses,m and 2m,approach each along a path at right angles to each other .After collision,they stick together and move off at 2m/s at angle 37° to the original direction of the mass m. What where the initial speeds of the two particles
MB
2m & m initial velocity 1.8m/s & 4.8m/s respectively,apply conservation of linear momentum in two perpendicular directions.
Shubhrant
A body on circular orbit makes an angular displacement given by teta(t)=2(t)+5(t)+5.if time t is in seconds calculate the angular velocity at t=2s
MB
2+5+0=7sec differentiate above equation w.r.t time, as angular velocity is rate of change of angular displacement.
Shubhrant
Ok i got a question I'm not asking how gravity works. I would like to know why gravity works. like why is gravity the way it is. What is the true nature of gravity?
gravity pulls towards a mass...like every object is pulled towards earth
Ashok
An automobile traveling with an initial velocity of 25m/s is accelerated to 35m/s in 6s,the wheel of the automobile is 80cm in diameter. find * The angular acceleration
(10/6) ÷0.4=4.167 per sec
Shubhrant
what is the formula for pressure?
force/area
Kidus
force is newtom
Kidus
and area is meter squared
Kidus
so in SI units pressure is N/m^2
Kidus
In customary United States units pressure is lb/in^2. pound per square inch
Kidus
who is Newton?
scientist
Jeevan
a scientist
Peter
that discovered law of motion
Peter
ok
John
but who is Isaac newton?
John
a postmodernist would say that he did not discover them, he made them up and they're not actually a reality in itself, but a mere construct by which we decided to observe the word around us
elo
how?
Qhoshe
Besides his work on universal gravitation (gravity), Newton developed the 3 laws of motion which form the basic principles of modern physics. His discovery of calculus led the way to more powerful methods of solving mathematical problems. His work in optics included the study of white light and
Daniel
and the color spectrum
Daniel
what is a scalar quantity
scalar: are quantity have numerical value
muslim
is that a better way in defining scalar quantity
Peter
thanks
muslim
quantity that has magnitude but no direction
Peter
upward force and downward force lift
upward force and downward force on lift
hi
Etini
hi
elo
hy
Xander
Hello
Jux_dob
hi
Peter
Helo
Tobi
Daniel
what's the answer? I can't get it
what is the question again?
Sallieu
What's this conversation?
Zareen
what is catenation? and give examples
sununu
How many kilometres in 1 mile
Nessy
1.609km in 1mile
Faqir
what's the si unit of impulse
The Newton second (N•s)
Ethan
what is the s. I unit of current
Amphere(A)
imam
thanks man
Roland
u r welcome
imam