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Due to the comprehensive nature of the material, we are offering the book in three volumes for flexibility and efficiency.

Coverage and scope

Our University Physics textbook adheres to the scope and sequence of most two- and three-semester physics courses nationwide. We have worked to make physics interesting and accessible to students while maintaining the mathematical rigor inherent in the subject. With this objective in mind, the content of this textbook has been developed and arranged to provide a logical progression from fundamental to more advanced concepts, building upon what students have already learned and emphasizing connections between topics and between theory and applications. The goal of each section is to enable students not just to recognize concepts, but to work with them in ways that will be useful in later courses and future careers. The organization and pedagogical features were developed and vetted with feedback from science educators dedicated to the project.


Unit 1: Mechanics

  • Chapter 1: Units and Measurement
  • Chapter 2: Vectors
  • Chapter 3: Motion Along a Straight Line
  • Chapter 4: Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
  • Chapter 5: Newton’s Laws of Motion
  • Chapter 6: Applications of Newton’s Laws
  • Chapter 7: Work and Kinetic Energy
  • Chapter 8: Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
  • Chapter 9: Linear Momentum and Collisions
  • Chapter 10: Fixed-Axis Rotation
  • Chapter 11: Angular Momentum
  • Chapter 12: Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
  • Chapter 13: Gravitation
  • Chapter 14: Fluid Mechanics

Unit 2: Waves and Acoustics

  • Chapter 15: Oscillations
  • Chapter 16: Waves
  • Chapter 17: Sound


Unit 1: Thermodynamics

  • Chapter 1: Temperature and Heat
  • Chapter 2: The Kinetic Theory of Gases
  • Chapter 3: The First Law of Thermodynamics
  • Chapter 4: The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Unit 2: Electricity and Magnetism

  • Chapter 5: Electric Charges and Fields
  • Chapter 6: Gauss’s Law
  • Chapter 7: Electric Potential
  • Chapter 8: Capacitance
  • Chapter 9: Current and Resistance
  • Chapter 10: Direct-Current Circuits
  • Chapter 11: Magnetic Forces and Fields
  • Chapter 12: Sources of Magnetic Fields
  • Chapter 13: Electromagnetic Induction
  • Chapter 14: Inductance
  • Chapter 15: Alternating-Current Circuits
  • Chapter 16: Electromagnetic Waves


Unit 1: Optics

  • Chapter 1: The Nature of Light
  • Chapter 2: Geometric Optics and Image Formation
  • Chapter 3: Interference
  • Chapter 4: Diffraction

Unit 2: Modern Physics

  • Chapter 5: Relativity
  • Chapter 6: Photons and Matter Waves
  • Chapter 7: Quantum Mechanics
  • Chapter 8: Atomic Structure
  • Chapter 9: Condensed Matter Physics
  • Chapter 10: Nuclear Physics
  • Chapter 11: Particle Physics and Cosmology

Pedagogical foundation

Throughout University Physics you will find derivations of concepts that present classical ideas and techniques, as well as modern applications and methods. Most chapters start with observations or experiments that place the material in a context of physical experience. Presentations and explanations rely on years of classroom experience on the part of long-time physics professors, striving for a balance of clarity and rigor that has proven successful with their students. Throughout the text, links enable students to review earlier material and then return to the present discussion, reinforcing connections between topics. Key historical figures and experiments are discussed in the main text (rather than in boxes or sidebars), maintaining a focus on the development of physical intuition. Key ideas, definitions, and equations are highlighted in the text and listed in summary form at the end of each chapter. Examples and chapter-opening images often include contemporary applications from daily life or modern science and engineering that students can relate to, from smart phones to the internet to GPS devices.

Questions & Answers

a non-uniform boom of a crane 15m long, weighs 2800nts, with its center of gravity at 40% of its lenght from the hingr support. the boom is attached to a hinge at the lower end. rhe boom, which mAKES A 60% ANGLE WITH THE HORIZONTAL IS SUPPORTED BY A HORIZONTAL GUY WIRE AT ITS UPPER END. IF A LOAD OF 5000Nts is hung at the upper end of the boom, find the tension in the guywire and the components of the reaction at the hinge.
dangly Reply
what is the centripetal force
Malok Reply
centripetal force of attraction that pulls a body that is traversing round the orbit of a circle toward the center of the circle. Fc = MV²/r
centripetal force is the force of attraction that pulls a body that is traversing round the orbit of a circle toward the center of the circle. Fc = MV²/r
I do believe the formula for centripetal force is F=MA or F=m(v^2/r)
I mean the formula is Fc= Mass multiplied by square of velocity all over the Radius of the circle
The force is equal to the mass times the velocity squared divided by the radius
That's the current chapter I'm on in my engineering physics class
Centripetal force is a force of attraction which keeps an object round the orbit towards the center of a circle. Mathematically Fc=mv²/r
In Example, we calculated the final speed of a roller coaster that descended 20 m in height and had an initial speed of 5 m/s downhill. Suppose the roller coaster had had an initial speed of 5 m/s uphill instead, and it coasted uphill, stopped, and then rolled back down to a final point 20 m bel
tan Reply
A steel lift column in a service station is 4 meter long and .2 meter in diameter. Young's modulus for steel is 20 X 1010N/m2.  By how much does the column shrink when a 5000- kg truck is on it?
Andiswa Reply
what exactly is a transverse wave
Dharmee Reply
does newton's first law mean that we don't need gravity to be attracted
Dharmee Reply
no, it just means that a brick isn't gonna move unless something makes it move. if in the air, moves down because of gravity. if on floor, doesn't move unless something has it move, like a hand pushing the brick. first law is that an object will stay at rest or motion unless another force acts upon
yeah but once gravity has already been exerted .. i am saying that it need not be constantly exerted now according to newtons first law
gravity is constantly being exerted. gravity is the force of attractiveness between two objects. you and another person exert a force on each other but the reason you two don't come together is because earth's effect on both of you is much greater
maybe the reason we dont come together is our inertia only and not gravity
this is the definition of inertia: a property of matter by which it continues in its existing state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line, unless that state is changed by an external force.
the earth has a much higher affect on us force wise that me and you together on each other, that's why we don't attract, relatively speaking of course
quite clear explanation but i just want my mind to be open to any theory at all .. its possible that maybe gravity does not exist at all or even the opposite can be true .. i dont want a fixed state of mind thats all
why wouldn't gravity exist? gravity is just the attractive force between two objects, at least to my understanding.
earth moves in a circular motion so yes it does need a constant force for a circular motion but incase of objects on earth i feel maybe there is no force of attraction towards the centre and its our inertia forcing us to stay at a point as once gravity had acted on the object
why should it exist .. i mean its all an assumption and the evidences are empirical
We have equations to prove it and lies of evidence to support. we orbit because we have a velocity and the sun is pulling us. Gravity is a law, we know it exists.
yeah sure there are equations but they are based on observations and assumptions
g is obtained by a simple pendulum experiment ...
gravity is tested by dropping a rock...
and also there were so many newtonian laws proved wrong by einstein . jus saying that its a law doesnt mean it cant be wrong
pendulum is good for showing energy transfer, here is an article on the detection of gravitational waves: ***ligo.org/detections.php
yeah but g is calculated by pendulum oscillations ..
thats what .. einstein s fabric model explains that force of attraction by sun on earth but i am talking about force of attraction by earth on objects on earth
no... this is how gravity is calculated:F = G*((m sub 1*m sub 2)/r^2)
gravitational constant is obtained EXPERIMENTALLY
the G part
Calculate the time of one oscillation or the period (T) by dividing the total time by the number of oscillations you counted. Use your calculated (T) along with the exact length of the pendulum (L) in the above formula to find "g." This is your measured value for "g."
G is the universal gravitational constant. F is the gravity
search up the gravity equation
yeahh G is obtained experimentally
sure yes
thats what .. after all its EXPERIMENTALLY calculated so its empirical
yes... so where do we disagree?
its empirical whixh means it can be proved wrong
so cant just say why wouldnt gravity exists
the constant, sure but extremely unlikely it is wrong. gravity however exists, there are equations and loads of support surrounding the concept. unfortunately I don't have a high enough background in physics but have this discussion with a physicist
can u suggest a platform where i can?
stack overflow
stack exchange, physics section***
its an app?
there is! it is also a website as well
nice talking to you
likewise :)
Gravity surely exist
hi guys
what is mathematics
What is the percentage by massof oxygen in Al2(so4)3
Isiguzo Reply
molecular mass of Al2(SO4)3 = (27×2)+3{(32×1)+(16×4)} =54+3(32+64) =54+3×96 =54+288 =342 g/mol molecular mass of Oxygen=12×16 =192 g/mol % of Oxygen= (molecular mass of Oxygen/ molecular mass of the compound)×100% =(192/342)×100% =19200/342% =56.14%
A spring with 50g mass suspended from it,has its length extended by 7.8cm 1.1 determine the spring constant? 1.2 it is observed that the length of the spring decreases by 4.7cm,from its original length, when a toy is place on top of it. what is the mass of the toy?
Silindelo Reply
solution mass = 50g= 0.05kg force= 50 x 10= 500N extension= 7.8cm = 0.078m using the formula Force= Ke K = force/extension 500/.078 = 6410.25N/m
1.2 Decrease in length= -4.7cm =-0.047m mass=? acceleration due to gravity= 10 force = K x e force= mass x acceleration m x a = K x e mass = K x e/acceleration = 6410.25 x 0.047/10 = 30.13kg
1.1 6.28Nm-¹
1.2 0.03kg or 30g
I used g=9.8ms-²
you should explain how yoy got the answer Anita
with the fomular F=mg I got the value for force because now the force acting on the spring is the weight of the object and also you have to convert from grams to kilograms and cm to meter
so the spring constant K=F/e where F is force and e is extension
mass=50g=50/1000 kg m=0.05kg extension=7.8 cm=7.8/100 e=0.078 m g=9.8 m/s² 1.1 F=ke k=F/e k=mg/e k=0.05×9.8/0.078 k=0.49/0.078 k=6.28 N/m 1.2 F=6.28e mg=6.28e m=6.28e/g e=4.7 cm =4.7/100 e=0.047 m=6.28×0.047/9.8 m=0.29516/9.8 m=0.0301 kg
In this first example why didn't we use P=P° + ¶hg where ¶ is density
Anita Reply
Density = force applied x area p=fA =p = mga, then a=h therefore substitute =p =mgh
Please correct me
sorry I had a little typo in my question
Density = m/v (mass/volume) simple as that
Hlehle vilakazi how density is equal to force * area and you also wrote p= mgh which is machenical potential energy ? how ?
what is wave
Alfred Reply
who can state the third equation of motion
wave is a distrubance that travelled in medium from one point to another with carry energy .
wave is a periodic disturbance that carries energy from one medium to another..
what exactly is a transverse wave then?
two particles rotate in a rigid body then acceleration will be ?
kinza Reply
same acceleration for all particles because all prticles will be moving with same angular velocity.so at any time interval u find same acceleration of all the prticles
what is electromagnetism
David Reply
It is the study of the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ... It includes the electric force, which pushes all charged particles, and the magnetic force, which only pushes moving charges.
what is units?
Subhajit Reply
units as in how
units are measurements of quantities
What is th formular for force
Joseph Reply
F = m x a
State newton's second law of motion
Seth Reply
can u tell me I cant remember
force is equal to mass times acceleration
The acceleration of a system is directly proportional to the and in the same direction as the external force acting on the system and inversely proportional to its mass that is f=ma
The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the force exerted on that body.

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12031/1.5
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