<< Chapter < Page | Chapter >> Page > |
Explain, in terms of the definition of power, why energy consumption is sometimes listed in kilowatt-hours rather than joules. What is the relationship between these two energy units?
A spark of static electricity, such as that you might receive from a doorknob on a cold dry day, may carry a few hundred watts of power. Explain why you are not injured by such a spark.
The spark occurs over a relatively short time span, thereby delivering a very low amount of energy to your body.
Does the work done in lifting an object depend on how fast it is lifted? Does the power expended depend on how fast it is lifted?
Can the power expended by a force be negative?
If the force is antiparallel or points in an opposite direction to the velocity, the power expended can be negative.
How can a 50-W light bulb use more energy than a 1000-W oven?
A person in good physical condition can put out 100 W of useful power for several hours at a stretch, perhaps by pedaling a mechanism that drives an electric generator. Neglecting any problems of generator efficiency and practical considerations such as resting time: (a) How many people would it take to run a 4.00-kW electric clothes dryer? (b) How many people would it take to replace a large electric power plant that generates 800 MW?
a. 40; b. 8 million
What is the cost of operating a 3.00-W electric clock for a year if the cost of electricity is $0.0900 per $\text{kW}\xb7\text{h}$ ?
A large household air conditioner may consume 15.0 kW of power. What is the cost of operating this air conditioner 3.00 h per day for 30.0 d if the cost of electricity is $0.110 per $\text{kW}\xb7\text{h}$ ?
$149
(a) What is the average power consumption in watts of an appliance that uses 5.00 $\text{kW}\xb7\text{h}$ of energy per day? (b) How many joules of energy does this appliance consume in a year?
(a) What is the average useful power output of a person who does $6.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{6}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{J}$ of useful work in 8.00 h? (b) Working at this rate, how long will it take this person to lift 2000 kg of bricks 1.50 m to a platform? (Work done to lift his body can be omitted because it is not considered useful output here.)
a. 208 W; b. 141 s
A 500-kg dragster accelerates from rest to a final speed of 110 m/s in 400 m (about a quarter of a mile) and encounters an average frictional force of 1200 N. What is its average power output in watts and horsepower if this takes 7.30 s?
(a) How long will it take an 850-kg car with a useful power output of 40.0 hp (1 hp equals 746 W) to reach a speed of 15.0 m/s, neglecting friction? (b) How long will this acceleration take if the car also climbs a 3.00-m high hill in the process?
a. 3.20 s; b. 4.04 s
(a) Find the useful power output of an elevator motor that lifts a 2500-kg load a height of 35.0 m in 12.0 s, if it also increases the speed from rest to 4.00 m/s. Note that the total mass of the counterbalanced system is 10,000 kg—so that only 2500 kg is raised in height, but the full 10,000 kg is accelerated. (b) What does it cost, if electricity is $0.0900 per $\text{kW}\xb7\text{h}$ ?
(a) How long would it take a $1.50\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{5}\text{-kg}$ airplane with engines that produce 100 MW of power to reach a speed of 250 m/s and an altitude of 12.0 km if air resistance were negligible? (b) If it actually takes 900 s, what is the power? (c) Given this power, what is the average force of air resistance if the airplane takes 1200 s? ( Hint: You must find the distance the plane travels in 1200 s assuming constant acceleration.)
a. 224 s; b. 24.8 MW; c. 49.7 kN
Notification Switch
Would you like to follow the 'University physics volume 1' conversation and receive update notifications?