# 7.4 Power  (Page 2/8)

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Check Your Understanding Estimate the power expended by a weightlifter raising a 150-kg barbell 2 m in 3 s.

980 W

The power involved in moving a body can also be expressed in terms of the forces acting on it. If a force $\stackrel{\to }{F}$ acts on a body that is displaced $d\stackrel{\to }{r}$ in a time dt , the power expended by the force is

$P=\frac{dW}{dt}=\frac{\stackrel{\to }{F}·d\stackrel{\to }{r}}{dt}=\stackrel{\to }{F}·\left(\frac{d\stackrel{\to }{r}}{dt}\right)=\stackrel{\to }{F}·\stackrel{\to }{v},$

where $\stackrel{\to }{v}$ is the velocity of the body. The fact that the limits implied by the derivatives exist, for the motion of a real body, justifies the rearrangement of the infinitesimals.

## Automotive power driving uphill

How much power must an automobile engine expend to move a 1200-kg car up a 15% grade at 90 km/h ( [link] )? Assume that 25% of this power is dissipated overcoming air resistance and friction.

## Strategy

At constant velocity, there is no change in kinetic energy, so the net work done to move the car is zero. Therefore the power supplied by the engine to move the car equals the power expended against gravity and air resistance. By assumption, 75% of the power is supplied against gravity, which equals $m\stackrel{\to }{g}·\stackrel{\to }{v}=mgv\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\theta ,$ where $\theta$ is the angle of the incline. A 15% grade means $\text{tan}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\theta =0.15.$ This reasoning allows us to solve for the power required.

## Solution

Carrying out the suggested steps, we find

$0.75\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}P=mgv\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\left({\text{tan}}^{-1}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}0.15\right),$

or

$P=\frac{\left(1200\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}9.8\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{N}\right)\left(90\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m}\text{/}3.6\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{s}\right)\text{sin}\left(8.53\text{°}\right)}{0.75}=58\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{kW,}$

or about 78 hp. (You should supply the steps used to convert units.)

## Significance

This is a reasonable amount of power for the engine of a small to mid-size car to supply $\left(1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{hp}=0.746\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{kW}\text{).}$ Note that this is only the power expended to move the car. Much of the engine’s power goes elsewhere, for example, into waste heat. That’s why cars need radiators. Any remaining power could be used for acceleration, or to operate the car’s accessories.

## Summary

• Power is the rate of doing work; that is, the derivative of work with respect to time.
• Alternatively, the work done, during a time interval, is the integral of the power supplied over the time interval.
• The power delivered by a force, acting on a moving particle, is the dot product of the force and the particle’s velocity.

## Key equations

 Work done by a force over an infinitesimal displacement $dW=\stackrel{\to }{F}·d\stackrel{\to }{r}=|\stackrel{\to }{F}||d\stackrel{\to }{r}|\text{cos}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\theta$ Work done by a force acting along a path from A to B ${W}_{AB}=\underset{\text{path}AB}{\int }\stackrel{\to }{F}·d\stackrel{\to }{r}$ Work done by a constant force of kinetic friction ${W}_{\text{fr}}=\text{−}{f}_{k}|{l}_{AB}|$ Work done going from A to B by Earth’s gravity, near its surface ${W}_{\text{grav,}AB}=\text{−}mg\left({y}_{B}-{y}_{A}\right)$ Work done going from A to B by one-dimensional spring force ${W}_{\text{spring,}AB}=\text{−}\left(\frac{1}{2}k\right)\left({x}_{B}^{2}-{x}_{A}^{2}\right)$ Kinetic energy of a non-relativistic particle $K=\frac{1}{2}m{v}^{2}=\frac{{p}^{2}}{2m}$ Work-energy theorem ${W}_{\text{net}}={K}_{B}-{K}_{A}$ Power as rate of doing work $P=\frac{dW}{dt}$ Power as the dot product of force and velocity $P=\stackrel{\to }{F}·\stackrel{\to }{v}$

## Conceptual questions

Most electrical appliances are rated in watts. Does this rating depend on how long the appliance is on? (When off, it is a zero-watt device.) Explain in terms of the definition of power.

Appliances are rated in terms of the energy consumed in a relatively small time interval. It does not matter how long the appliance is on, only the rate of change of energy per unit time.

when I click on the links in the topics noting shows. what should I do.
can we regard torque as a force?
Torque is only referred a force to rotate objects.
SHREESH
thanks
Emmanuel
I need lessons on Simple harmonic motion
Emmanuel
what is the formulae for elastic modulus
Given two vectors, vector C which is 3 units, and vector D which is 5 units. If the two vectors form an angle of 45o, determine C D and direction.
At time to = 0 the current to the DC motor is reverse, resulting in angular displacement of the motor shafts given by angle = (198rad/s)t - (24rad/s^2)t^2 - (2rad/s^3)t^3 At what time is the angular velocity of the motor shaft zero
3s
Basit
what is angular velocity
In three experiments, three different horizontal forces are ap- plied to the same block lying on the same countertop. The force magnitudes are F1 " 12 N, F2 " 8 N, and F3 " 4 N. In each experi- ment, the block remains stationary in spite of the applied force. Rank the forces according to (a) the
Given two vectors, vector C which is 3 units, and vector D which is 5 units. If the two vectors form an angle of 45o, determine C D and direction.
AFLAX
ty
Sharath
CD=5.83 n direction is NE
Ark
state Hooke's law of elasticity
Hooke's law states that the extension produced is directly proportional to the applied force provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded. F=ke;
Shaibu
thanks
Aarti
You are welcome
Shaibu
thnx
Junaid
what is drag force
Junaid
A backward acting force that tends to resist thrust
Ian
solve:A person who weighs 720N in air is lowered in to tank of water to about chin level .He sits in a harness of negligible mass suspended from a scale that reads his apparent weight .He then dumps himself under water submerging his body .If his weight while submerged is 34.3N. find his density
Ian
The weight inside the tank is lesser due to the buoyancy force by the water displaced. Weight of water displaced = His weight outside - his weight inside tank = 720 - 34.3 = 685.7N Now, the density of water = 997kg/m³ (this is a known value) Volume of water displaced = Mass/Density (next com)
Sharath
density or relative density
Shaibu
density
Ian
Upthrust =720-34.3=685.7N mass of water displayed = 685.7/g vol of water displayed = 685.7/g/997 hence, density of man = 720/g / (685.7/g/997) =1046.6 kg/m3
1046.8
R.d=weight in air/upthrust in water =720/34.3=20.99 R.d=density of substance/density of water 20.99=x/1 x=20.99g/cm^3
Shaibu
Kg /cubic meters
Shaibu
Upthrust = 720-34.3=685.7N vol of water = 685.7/g/density of water = 685.7/g/997 so density of man = 720/g /(685.7/g/997) =1046.8 kg/m3
is there anyway i can see your calculations
Ian
Upthrust =720-34.3=685.7
Upthrust 720-34.3
=685.7N
Vol of water = 685.7/g/997
Hence density of man = 720/g / (685.7/g/997)
=1046.8 kg/m3
so the density of water is 997
Shaibu
Yes
Okay, thanks
Shaibu
try finding the volume then
Ian
Vol of man = vol of water displayed
I've done that; I got 0.0687m^3
Shaibu
okay i got it thanks
Ian
u welcome
Shaibu
HELLO kindly assist me on this...(MATHS) show that the function f(x)=[0 for xor=0]is continuous from the right of x->0 but not from the left of x->0
I do not get the question can you make it clearer
Ark
Same here, the function looks very ambiguous. please restate the question properly.
Sharath
please help me solve this problem.a hiker begins a trip by first walking 25kmSE from her car.she stops and sets her tent for the night . on the second day, she walks 40km in a direction 60°NorthofEast,at which she discovers a forest ranger's tower.find components of hiker's displacement for each day
Take a paper. put a point (name is A), now draw a line in the South east direction from A. Assume the line is 25 km long. that is the first stop (name the second point B) From B, turn 60 degrees to the north of East and draw another line, name that C. that line is 40 km long. (contd.)
Sharath
Now, you know how to calculate displacements, I hope? the displacement between two points is the shortest distance between the two points. go ahead and do the calculations necessary. Good luck!
Sharath
thank you so much Sharath Kumar
Liteboho
thank you, have also learned alot
Duncan
No issues at all. I love the subject and teaching it is fun. Cheers!
Sharath
cheers!
Liteboho
cheers too
Duncan
hii
Lakshya
hii too
Siciid
haye
Siciid
yes
Siciid
yes
Lakshya
shggggg
Lakshya
you mean
Siciid
solution problems
Siciid
what is the definition of model
please is there any way that i can understand physics very well i know am not support to ask this kind of question....
matthew
yes
Duncan
prove using vector algebra that the diagonals of a rhombus perpendicular to each other.
A projectile is thrown with a speed of v at an angle of theta has a range of R on the surface of the earth. For same v and theta,it's range on the surface of moon will be
0
Keshav
what is soln..
Keshav
o
Duncan
Using some kinematics, time taken for the projectile to reach ground is (2*v*g*Sin (∆)) (here, g is gravity on Earth and ∆ is theta) therefore, on Earth, R = 2*v²*g*Sin(∆)*Cos(∆) on moon, the only difference is the gravity. Gravity on moon = 0.166*g substituting that value in R, we get the new R
Sharath
Some corrections to my old post. Time taken to reach ground = 2*v*Sin (∆)/g R = (2*v²*Sin(∆)*Cos(∆))/g I put the g in the numerator by mistake in my old post. apologies for that. R on moon = (R on Earth)/(0.166)
Sharath
state Newton's first law of motion
Every body will continue in it's state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by an external force.
Kumaga
if you want this to become intuitive to you then you should state it
Shii
changing the state of rest or uniform motion of a body
koffi
if a body is in rest or motion it is always rest or motion, upto external force appied on it. it explains inertia
Omsai
what is a vector
smith
a ship move due north at 100kmhr----1 on a River flowing be due east on at 25kmperhr. cal the magnitude of the resultant velocity of the ship.
The result is a simple vector addition. The angle between the vectors is 90 degrees, so we can use Pythagoras theorem to get the result. V magnitude = sqrt(100*100 + 25*25) = 103.077 km/hr. the direction of the resultant vector can be found using trigonometry. Tan (theta) = 25/100.
Kumar
103.077640640442km/h
Peter
state Newton's first law of motion
An object continues to be in its state of rest or motion unless compelled by some external force
Alem
First law (law of inertia)- If a body is at rest, it would remain at rest and if the body is in the motion, it would be moving with the same velocity until or unless no external force is applied on it. If force F^=0 acceleration a^=0 or v^=0 or constant.
Govindsingh