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Consider a person holding a mass on a rope, as shown in [link] . If the 5.00-kg mass in the figure is stationary, then its acceleration is zero and the net force is zero. The only external forces acting on the mass are its weight and the tension supplied by the rope. Thus,

F net = T w = 0 ,

where T and w are the magnitudes of the tension and weight, respectively, and their signs indicate direction, with up being positive. As we proved using Newton’s second law, the tension equals the weight of the supported mass:

T = w = m g .

Thus, for a 5.00-kg mass (neglecting the mass of the rope), we see that

T = m g = ( 5.00 kg ) ( 9.80 m/s 2 ) = 49.0 N .

If we cut the rope and insert a spring, the spring would extend a length corresponding to a force of 49.0 N, providing a direct observation and measure of the tension force in the rope.

Figure shows mass m hanging from a rope. Two arrows of equal length, both labeled T are shown along the rope, one pointing up and the other pointing down. An arrow labeled w points down. A free body diagram shows T pointing up and w pointing down.
When a perfectly flexible connector (one requiring no force to bend it) such as this rope transmits a force T , that force must be parallel to the length of the rope, as shown. By Newton’s third law, the rope pulls with equal force but in opposite directions on the hand and the supported mass (neglecting the weight of the rope). The rope is the medium that carries the equal and opposite forces between the two objects. The tension anywhere in the rope between the hand and the mass is equal. Once you have determined the tension in one location, you have determined the tension at all locations along the rope.

Flexible connectors are often used to transmit forces around corners, such as in a hospital traction system, a tendon, or a bicycle brake cable. If there is no friction, the tension transmission is undiminished; only its direction changes, and it is always parallel to the flexible connector, as shown in [link] .

Figure a shows the muscle structure of a human finger. Broad muscles at the base are labeled extensor muscles. These are attached to the extensor tendons. Tendons along the length of the finger are labeled flexor tendons. Arrows labeled T are shown from the upper part of the finger towards the base. Figure b shows a bicycle. Arrows labeled T are shown from the centre of the back wheel to the seat bar, from the seat bar to the handle bar and from the handle towards the back of the bicycle.
(a) Tendons in the finger carry force T from the muscles to other parts of the finger, usually changing the force’s direction but not its magnitude (the tendons are relatively friction free). (b) The brake cable on a bicycle carries the tension T from the brake lever on the handlebars to the brake mechanism. Again, the direction but not the magnitude of T is changed.

What is the tension in a tightrope?

Calculate the tension in the wire supporting the 70.0-kg tightrope walker shown in [link] .

Figure shows a man at the centre of a tightrope which is supported by two poles. The rope sags under his weight and makes an angle of 5 degrees with the horizontal at each pole. Arrows labeled TL and TR point roughly to the left and right respectively and are parallel to the rope. Arrow labeled w points straight down from the man. These three arrows are also shown in a free body diagram.
The weight of a tightrope walker causes a wire to sag by 5.0 ° . The system of interest is the point in the wire at which the tightrope walker is standing.

Strategy

As you can see in [link] , the wire is bent under the person’s weight. Thus, the tension on either side of the person has an upward component that can support his weight. As usual, forces are vectors represented pictorially by arrows that have the same direction as the forces and lengths proportional to their magnitudes. The system is the tightrope walker, and the only external forces acting on him are his weight w and the two tensions T L (left tension) and T R (right tension). It is reasonable to neglect the weight of the wire. The net external force is zero, because the system is static. We can use trigonometry to find the tensions. One conclusion is possible at the outset—we can see from [link] (b) that the magnitudes of the tensions T L and T R must be equal. We know this because there is no horizontal acceleration in the rope and the only forces acting to the left and right are T L and T R . Thus, the magnitude of those horizontal components of the forces must be equal so that they cancel each other out.

Questions & Answers

a particle projected from origin moving on x-y plane passes through P & Q having consituents (9,7) , (18,4) respectively.find eq. of trajectry.
rahul Reply
definition of inertia
philip Reply
the reluctance of a body to start moving when it is at rest and to stop moving when it is in motion
charles
An inherent property by virtue of which the body remains in its pure state or initial state
Kushal
why current is not a vector quantity , whereas it have magnitude as well as direction.
Aniket Reply
why
daniel
the flow of current is not current
fitzgerald
bcoz it doesn't satisfy the algabric laws of vectors
Shiekh
The Electric current can be defined as the dot product of the current density and the differential cross-sectional area vector : ... So the electric current is a scalar quantity . Scalars are related to tensors by the fact that a scalar is a tensor of order or rank zero .
Kushal
what is binomial theorem
Tollum Reply
hello are you ready to ask aquestion?
Saadaq Reply
what is binary operations
Tollum
What is the formula to calculat parallel forces that acts in opposite direction?
Martan Reply
position, velocity and acceleration of vector
Manuel Reply
hi
peter
hi
daniel
hi
Vedisha
*a plane flies with a velocity of 1000km/hr in a direction North60degree east.find it effective velocity in the easterly and northerly direction.*
imam
hello
Lydia
hello Lydia.
Sackson
What is momentum
isijola
hello
Saadaq
A rail way truck of mass 2400kg is hung onto a stationary trunk on a level track and collides with it at 4.7m|s. After collision the two trunk move together with a common speed of 1.2m|s. Calculate the mass of the stationary trunk
Ekuri Reply
I need the solving for this question
philip
is the eye the same like the camera
EDWIN Reply
I can't understand
Suraia
same here please
Josh
I think the question is that ,,, the working principal of eye and camera same or not?
Sardar
yes i think is same as the camera
muhammad
what are the dimensions of surface tension
samsfavor
why is the "_" sign used for a wave to the right instead of to the left?
MUNGWA Reply
why classical mechanics is necessary for graduate students?
khyam Reply
classical mechanics?
Victor
principle of superposition?
Naveen Reply
principle of superposition allows us to find the electric field on a charge by finding the x and y components
Kidus
Two Masses,m and 2m,approach each along a path at right angles to each other .After collision,they stick together and move off at 2m/s at angle 37° to the original direction of the mass m. What where the initial speeds of the two particles
MB
2m & m initial velocity 1.8m/s & 4.8m/s respectively,apply conservation of linear momentum in two perpendicular directions.
Shubhrant
A body on circular orbit makes an angular displacement given by teta(t)=2(t)+5(t)+5.if time t is in seconds calculate the angular velocity at t=2s
MB
2+5+0=7sec differentiate above equation w.r.t time, as angular velocity is rate of change of angular displacement.
Shubhrant
Ok i got a question I'm not asking how gravity works. I would like to know why gravity works. like why is gravity the way it is. What is the true nature of gravity?
Daniel Reply
gravity pulls towards a mass...like every object is pulled towards earth
Ashok
An automobile traveling with an initial velocity of 25m/s is accelerated to 35m/s in 6s,the wheel of the automobile is 80cm in diameter. find * The angular acceleration
Goodness Reply
(10/6) ÷0.4=4.167 per sec
Shubhrant
what is the formula for pressure?
Goodness Reply
force/area
Kidus
force is newtom
Kidus
and area is meter squared
Kidus
so in SI units pressure is N/m^2
Kidus
In customary United States units pressure is lb/in^2. pound per square inch
Kidus
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12031/1.5
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