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Check Your Understanding Explain why the concepts of Young’s modulus and shear modulus do not apply to fluids.

Fluids have different mechanical properties than those of solids; fluids flow.

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  • External forces on an object (or medium) cause its deformation, which is a change in its size and shape. The strength of the forces that cause deformation is expressed by stress, which in SI units is measured in the unit of pressure (pascal). The extent of deformation under stress is expressed by strain, which is dimensionless.
  • For a small stress, the relation between stress and strain is linear. The elastic modulus is the proportionality constant in this linear relation.
  • Tensile (or compressive) strain is the response of an object or medium to tensile (or compressive) stress. Here, the elastic modulus is called Young’s modulus. Tensile (or compressive) stress causes elongation (or shortening) of the object or medium and is due to an external forces acting along only one direction perpendicular to the cross-section.
  • Bulk strain is the response of an object or medium to bulk stress. Here, the elastic modulus is called the bulk modulus. Bulk stress causes a change in the volume of the object or medium and is caused by forces acting on the body from all directions, perpendicular to its surface. Compressibility of an object or medium is the reciprocal of its bulk modulus.
  • Shear strain is the deformation of an object or medium under shear stress. The shear modulus is the elastic modulus in this case. Shear stress is caused by forces acting along the object’s two parallel surfaces.

Conceptual questions

Note: Unless stated otherwise, the weights of the wires, rods, and other elements are assumed to be negligible. Elastic moduli of selected materials are given in [link] .

Why can a squirrel jump from a tree branch to the ground and run away undamaged, while a human could break a bone in such a fall?

In contact with the ground, stress in squirrel’s limbs is smaller than stress in human’s limbs.

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When a glass bottle full of vinegar warms up, both the vinegar and the glass expand, but the vinegar expands significantly more with temperature than does the glass. The bottle will break if it is filled up to its very tight cap. Explain why and how a pocket of air above the vinegar prevents the bottle from breaking.

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A thin wire strung between two nails in the wall is used to support a large picture. Is the wire likely to snap if it is strung tightly or if it is strung so that it sags considerably?


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Review the relationship between stress and strain. Can you find any similarities between the two quantities?

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What type of stress are you applying when you press on the ends of a wooden rod? When you pull on its ends?

compressive; tensile

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Can compressive stress be applied to a rubber band?

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Can Young’s modulus have a negative value? What about the bulk modulus?


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If a hypothetical material has a negative bulk modulus, what happens when you squeeze a piece of it?

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Discuss how you might measure the bulk modulus of a liquid.

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Questions & Answers

Hi all, love you all!!!
Giorgi Reply
How does resonance occur
Rahim Reply
what is quantam
pamit Reply
quantum is a division of mechanics
what is friction
Muhammad Reply
a force act by surface between two bodies whose are always oppose the relative motion .....
when two rough bodies are placed in contact and try to slip each other ... than a force act them and it's ippse the relative motion between them
thats friction force and roughnes of both bodies is define friction of surface
what is a progressive wave
sheriff-deen Reply
What is the wake for therapist
Ife Reply
can u like explain your question with clear detail
who would teach me vectors?
Tintin Reply
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Esther Reply
branch of science dt deals with the study of physical properties of matter and it's particulate nature
Y acctually do u hav ur way of defining it? just bring ur iwn idear
well, it deals with the weight of substances and reaction behind them as well as the behavior
buh hope Esther, we've answered ur question
what's ohms law
ohms law states that, the current flowing through an electric circuit is directly proportional to the potential difference, provided temperature and pressure are kept constant
what is sound
ohms law states that the resistance of a material is directly proportional to the potential difference between two points on that material, if temperature and other physical conditions become constant
How do I access the MCQ
Abraham Reply
As I think the best is, first select the easiest questions for you .and then you can answer the remaining questions.
I mean I'm unable to view it
when I click on it, it doesn't respond
ohhh,try again and again ,It will be showed
what is centripetal force
Don Reply
هي قوة ناتجة من الحركة الدائرية ويكون اتجاهها إلى المركز دائماً
meaning of vector quantity
Felix Reply
vector quantity is any quantity that has both magnitude in terms of number (units) and direction in terms of viewing the quantity from an origin using angles (degree) or (NEWS) method
vector quantity is physical quantity has magnitude and direction
vector is a quantity that is use in measuring size of physical properties and their direction
what difference and similarities between work,force,energy and power?
Anes Reply
I need the best answer
enery is the ability to do work. work is job done, force is a pull or push. power has to do with potential. they belong to different categories which include heat energy, electricity.
force refers to a push or pull... energy refers to work done while power is work done per unit time
mathematically express angular velocity and angular acceleration
Mario Reply
it depends on the direction. an angular velocity will be linear and angular acceleration will be an angle of elevation.
The sonic range finder discussed in the preceding question often needs to be calibrated. During the calibration, the software asks for the room temperature. Why do you suppose the room temperature is required?
Shaina Reply
Suppose a bat uses sound echoes to locate its insect prey, 3.00 m away. (See [link] .) (a) Calculate the echo times for temperatures of 5.00°C5.00°C and 35.0°C.35.0°C. (b) What percent uncertainty does this cause for the bat in locating the insect? (c) Discuss the significance of this uncertainty an
give a reason why musicians commonly bring their wind instruments to room temperature before playing them.
The ear canal resonates like a tube closed at one end. (See [link]Figure 17_03_HumEar[/link].) If ear canals range in length from 1.80 to 2.60 cm in an average population, what is the range of fundamental resonant frequencies? Take air temperature to be 37.0°C,37.0°C, which is the same as body tempe
By what fraction will the frequencies produced by a wind instrument change when air temperature goes from 10.0°C10.0°C to 30.0°C30.0°C ? That is, find the ratio of the frequencies at those temperatures.
what are vector quantity
Aondover Reply
Quantities that has both magnitude and direction
what is lenses
vector quantities are those physical quantites which have magnitude as well as direction and obey the laws of vector algebra.
electric current has both magnitude and direction but it doesn't obey the laws of vector algebra, hence it is not a vector quantity.

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12031/1.5
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