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Check Your Understanding Explain why the concepts of Young’s modulus and shear modulus do not apply to fluids.

Fluids have different mechanical properties than those of solids; fluids flow.

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Summary

  • External forces on an object (or medium) cause its deformation, which is a change in its size and shape. The strength of the forces that cause deformation is expressed by stress, which in SI units is measured in the unit of pressure (pascal). The extent of deformation under stress is expressed by strain, which is dimensionless.
  • For a small stress, the relation between stress and strain is linear. The elastic modulus is the proportionality constant in this linear relation.
  • Tensile (or compressive) strain is the response of an object or medium to tensile (or compressive) stress. Here, the elastic modulus is called Young’s modulus. Tensile (or compressive) stress causes elongation (or shortening) of the object or medium and is due to an external forces acting along only one direction perpendicular to the cross-section.
  • Bulk strain is the response of an object or medium to bulk stress. Here, the elastic modulus is called the bulk modulus. Bulk stress causes a change in the volume of the object or medium and is caused by forces acting on the body from all directions, perpendicular to its surface. Compressibility of an object or medium is the reciprocal of its bulk modulus.
  • Shear strain is the deformation of an object or medium under shear stress. The shear modulus is the elastic modulus in this case. Shear stress is caused by forces acting along the object’s two parallel surfaces.

Conceptual questions

Note: Unless stated otherwise, the weights of the wires, rods, and other elements are assumed to be negligible. Elastic moduli of selected materials are given in [link] .

Why can a squirrel jump from a tree branch to the ground and run away undamaged, while a human could break a bone in such a fall?

In contact with the ground, stress in squirrel’s limbs is smaller than stress in human’s limbs.

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When a glass bottle full of vinegar warms up, both the vinegar and the glass expand, but the vinegar expands significantly more with temperature than does the glass. The bottle will break if it is filled up to its very tight cap. Explain why and how a pocket of air above the vinegar prevents the bottle from breaking.

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A thin wire strung between two nails in the wall is used to support a large picture. Is the wire likely to snap if it is strung tightly or if it is strung so that it sags considerably?

tightly

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Review the relationship between stress and strain. Can you find any similarities between the two quantities?

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What type of stress are you applying when you press on the ends of a wooden rod? When you pull on its ends?

compressive; tensile

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Can compressive stress be applied to a rubber band?

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Can Young’s modulus have a negative value? What about the bulk modulus?

no

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If a hypothetical material has a negative bulk modulus, what happens when you squeeze a piece of it?

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Discuss how you might measure the bulk modulus of a liquid.

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Questions & Answers

principle of superposition?
Naveen Reply
principle of superposition allows us to find the electric field on a charge by finding the x and y components
Kidus
Ok i got a question I'm not asking how gravity works. I would like to know why gravity works. like why is gravity the way it is. What is the true nature of gravity?
Daniel Reply
gravity pulls towards a mass...like every object is pulled towards earth
Ashok
An automobile traveling with an initial velocity of 25m/s is accelerated to 35m/s in 6s,the wheel of the automobile is 80cm in diameter. find * The angular acceleration
Goodness Reply
what is the formula for pressure?
Goodness Reply
force/area
Kidus
force is newtom
Kidus
and area is meter squared
Kidus
so in SI units pressure is N/m^2
Kidus
In customary United States units pressure is lb/in^2. pound per square inch
Kidus
who is Newton?
John Reply
scientist
Jeevan
a scientist
Peter
that discovered law of motion
Peter
ok
John
but who is Isaac newton?
John
a postmodernist would say that he did not discover them, he made them up and they're not actually a reality in itself, but a mere construct by which we decided to observe the word around us
elo
how?
Qhoshe
Besides his work on universal gravitation (gravity), Newton developed the 3 laws of motion which form the basic principles of modern physics. His discovery of calculus led the way to more powerful methods of solving mathematical problems. His work in optics included the study of white light and
Daniel
and the color spectrum
Daniel
what is a scalar quantity
Peter Reply
scalar: are quantity have numerical value
muslim
is that a better way in defining scalar quantity
Peter
thanks
muslim
quantity that has magnitude but no direction
Peter
upward force and downward force lift
adegboye Reply
upward force and downward force on lift
adegboye
hi
Etini
hi
elo
hy
Xander
Hello
Jux_dob
hi
Peter
Helo
Tobi
Yes what about it?
Daniel
what's the answer? I can't get it
Rachel Reply
what is the question again?
Sallieu
What's this conversation?
Zareen
what is catenation? and give examples
sununu
How many kilometres in 1 mile
Nessy
1.609km in 1mile
Faqir
what's the si unit of impulse
Iguh Reply
The Newton second (N•s)
Ethan
what is the s. I unit of current
Roland Reply
Amphere(A)
imam
thanks man
Roland
u r welcome
imam
the velocity of a boat related to water is 3i+4j and that of water related to earth is i-3j. what is the velocity of the boat relative to earth.If unit vector i and j represent 1km/hour east and north respectively
Pallavi Reply
what is head to tail rule?
kinza Reply
Explain Head to tail rule?
kinza
what is the guess theorem
Monu Reply
viva question and answer on practical youngs modulus by streching
Akash Reply
send me vvi que
rupesh
a car can cover a distance of 522km on 36 Liter's of petrol, how far can it travel on 14 liter of petrol.
Isaac
yoo the ans is 193
Joseph
whats a two dimensional force
Jimoh Reply
what are two dimensional force?
Ahmad

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12031/1.5
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