Check Your Understanding If the normal force acting on each face of a cubical
$1{\text{.0-m}}^{3}$ piece of steel is changed by
$1.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{7}\text{N},$ find the resulting change in the volume of the piece of steel.
The concepts of shear stress and strain concern only solid objects or materials. Buildings and tectonic plates are examples of objects that may be subjected to shear stresses. In general, these concepts do not apply to fluids.
Shear deformation occurs when two antiparallel forces of equal magnitude are applied tangentially to opposite surfaces of a solid object, causing no deformation in the transverse direction to the line of force, as in the typical example of shear stress illustrated in
[link] . Shear deformation is characterized by a gradual shift
$\text{\Delta}x$ of layers in the direction tangent to the acting forces. This gradation in
$\text{\Delta}x$ occurs in the transverse direction along some distance
${L}_{0}.$ Shear strain is defined by the ratio of the largest displacement
$\text{\Delta}x$ to the transverse distance
${L}_{0}$
Shear strain is caused by shear stress. Shear stress is due to forces that act
parallel to the surface. We use the symbol
${F}_{\parallel}$ for such forces. The magnitude
${F}_{\parallel}$ per surface area
A where shearing force is applied is the measure of shear stress
$\text{shear stress}=\frac{{F}_{\parallel}}{A}.$
The shear modulus is the proportionality constant in
[link] and is defined by the ratio of stress to strain. Shear modulus is commonly denoted by
S :
A cleaning person tries to move a heavy, old bookcase on a carpeted floor by pushing tangentially on the surface of the very top shelf. However, the only noticeable effect of this effort is similar to that seen in
[link] , and it disappears when the person stops pushing. The bookcase is 180.0 cm tall and 90.0 cm wide with four 30.0-cm-deep shelves, all partially loaded with books. The total weight of the bookcase and books is 600.0 N. If the person gives the top shelf a 50.0-N push that displaces the top shelf horizontally by 15.0 cm relative to the motionless bottom shelf, find the shear modulus of the bookcase.
Strategy
The only pieces of relevant information are the physical dimensions of the bookcase, the value of the tangential force, and the displacement this force causes. We identify
${F}_{\parallel}=50.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{N},\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{\Delta}x=15.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{cm},$${L}_{0}=180.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{cm},$ and
$A=\text{(30.0 cm)}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\text{(90.0 cm)}=2700.0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{cm}}^{2},$ and we use
[link] to compute the shear modulus.
Solution
Substituting numbers into the equations, we obtain for the shear modulus
If the person in this example gave the shelf a healthy push, it might happen that the induced shear would collapse it to a pile of rubbish. Much the same shear mechanism is responsible for failures of earth-filled dams and levees; and, in general, for landslides.
Suppose the master cylinder in a hydraulic system is at a greater height than the cylinder it is controlling. Explain how this will affect the force produced at the cylinder that is being controlled.
Why is popo less than atmospheric? Why is popo greater than pipi?
Louise
The old rubber boot shown below has two leaks. To what maximum height can the water squirt from Leak 1? How does the velocity of water emerging from Leak 2 differ from that of Leak 1? Explain your responses in terms of energy.
Louise
David rolled down the window on his car while driving on the freeway. An empty plastic bag on the floor promptly flew out the window. Explain why.
The rate of change in angular displacement is defined as angular velocity.
Manorama
a length of copper wire was measured to be 50m with an uncertainty of 1cm, the thickness of the wire was measured to be 1mm with an uncertainty of 0.01mm, using a micrometer screw gauge, calculate the of copper wire used
if there is a centripetal force it means that there's also a centripetal acceleration, getting back to your question, just imagine what happens if you pull out of a car when it's quickly moving or when you try to stop when you are running fast, anyway, we notice that there's always a certain force..
Lindomar
... that tends to fight for its previous direction when you try to attribute to it an opposite one ou try to stop it.The same thing also happens whe a car goes around a curve, the car it self is designed to a"straight line"(look at the position of its tyres, mainly the back side ones), so...
Lindomar
... whenever it goes around a curve, it tends to throw away its the occupiers, it's given to the fact that it must interrupt its initial direction and take a new one.
When paddling a canoe upstream, it is wisest to travel as near to the shore as possible. When canoeing downstream, it may be best to stay near the middle. Explain why?
one ship sailing east with a speed of 7.5m/s passes a certain point at 8am and a second ship sailing north at the same speed passed the same point at 9.30am at what distance are they closet together and what is the distance between them then