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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Explain the concepts of stress and strain in describing elastic deformations of materials
  • Describe the types of elastic deformation of objects and materials

A model of a rigid body is an idealized example of an object that does not deform under the actions of external forces. It is very useful when analyzing mechanical systems—and many physical objects are indeed rigid to a great extent. The extent to which an object can be perceived as rigid depends on the physical properties of the material from which it is made. For example, a ping-pong ball made of plastic is brittle, and a tennis ball made of rubber is elastic when acted upon by squashing forces. However, under other circumstances, both a ping-pong ball and a tennis ball may bounce well as rigid bodies. Similarly, someone who designs prosthetic limbs may be able to approximate the mechanics of human limbs by modeling them as rigid bodies; however, the actual combination of bones and tissues is an elastic medium.

For the remainder of this chapter, we move from consideration of forces that affect the motion of an object to those that affect an object’s shape. A change in shape due to the application of a force is known as a deformation . Even very small forces are known to cause some deformation. Deformation is experienced by objects or physical media under the action of external forces—for example, this may be squashing, squeezing, ripping, twisting, shearing, or pulling the objects apart. In the language of physics, two terms describe the forces on objects undergoing deformation: stress and strain .

Stress is a quantity that describes the magnitude of forces that cause deformation. Stress is generally defined as force per unit area . When forces pull on an object and cause its elongation, like the stretching of an elastic band, we call such stress a tensile stress    . When forces cause a compression of an object, we call it a compressive stress    . When an object is being squeezed from all sides, like a submarine in the depths of an ocean, we call this kind of stress a bulk stress    (or volume stress ). In other situations, the acting forces may be neither tensile nor compressive, and still produce a noticeable deformation. For example, suppose you hold a book tightly between the palms of your hands, then with one hand you press-and-pull on the front cover away from you, while with the other hand you press-and-pull on the back cover toward you. In such a case, when deforming forces act tangentially to the object’s surface, we call them ‘shear’ forces and the stress they cause is called shear stress    .

The SI unit of stress is the pascal (Pa). When one newton of force presses on a unit surface area of one meter squared, the resulting stress is one pascal:

one pascal = 1.0 Pa = 1.0 N 1.0 m 2 .

In the British system of units, the unit of stress is ‘psi,’ which stands for ‘pound per square inch’ ( lb/in 2 ) . Another unit that is often used for bulk stress is the atm (atmosphere). Conversion factors are

Questions & Answers

Hi all, love you all!!!
Giorgi Reply
Cool
Debabrata
How does resonance occur
Rahim Reply
what is quantam
pamit Reply
quantum is a division of mechanics
Baje
what is friction
Muhammad Reply
a force act by surface between two bodies whose are always oppose the relative motion .....
Raghav
when two rough bodies are placed in contact and try to slip each other ... than a force act them and it's ippse the relative motion between them
Raghav
thats friction force and roughnes of both bodies is define friction of surface
Raghav
what is a progressive wave
sheriff-deen Reply
What is the wake for therapist
Ife Reply
can u like explain your question with clear detail
Chikamso
who would teach me vectors?
Tintin Reply
what's chemistry
Esther Reply
branch of science dt deals with the study of physical properties of matter and it's particulate nature
Josiah
Good
Daniel
actually
Nathz
Y acctually do u hav ur way of defining it? just bring ur iwn idear
Daniel
well, it deals with the weight of substances and reaction behind them as well as the behavior
Josiah
buh hope Esther, we've answered ur question
Josiah
what's ohms law
CHIJIOKE
ohms law states that, the current flowing through an electric circuit is directly proportional to the potential difference, provided temperature and pressure are kept constant
Josiah
what is sound
James
ohms law states that the resistance of a material is directly proportional to the potential difference between two points on that material, if temperature and other physical conditions become constant
Chikamso
How do I access the MCQ
Abraham Reply
As I think the best is, first select the easiest questions for you .and then you can answer the remaining questions.
lasitha
I mean I'm unable to view it
Abraham
when I click on it, it doesn't respond
Abraham
ohhh,try again and again ,It will be showed
lasitha
okay
Abraham
what is centripetal force
Don Reply
هي قوة ناتجة من الحركة الدائرية ويكون اتجاهها إلى المركز دائماً
meaning of vector quantity
Felix Reply
vector quantity is any quantity that has both magnitude in terms of number (units) and direction in terms of viewing the quantity from an origin using angles (degree) or (NEWS) method
LEWIS
vector quantity is physical quantity has magnitude and direction
vector is a quantity that is use in measuring size of physical properties and their direction
Bitrus
what difference and similarities between work,force,energy and power?
Anes Reply
I need the best answer
Anes
power
mehreen
power
saba
enery is the ability to do work. work is job done, force is a pull or push. power has to do with potential. they belong to different categories which include heat energy, electricity.
Andrew
force refers to a push or pull... energy refers to work done while power is work done per unit time
Shane
mathematically express angular velocity and angular acceleration
Mario Reply
it depends on the direction. an angular velocity will be linear and angular acceleration will be an angle of elevation.
Andrew
The sonic range finder discussed in the preceding question often needs to be calibrated. During the calibration, the software asks for the room temperature. Why do you suppose the room temperature is required?
Shaina Reply
Suppose a bat uses sound echoes to locate its insect prey, 3.00 m away. (See [link] .) (a) Calculate the echo times for temperatures of 5.00°C5.00°C and 35.0°C.35.0°C. (b) What percent uncertainty does this cause for the bat in locating the insect? (c) Discuss the significance of this uncertainty an
Shaina
give a reason why musicians commonly bring their wind instruments to room temperature before playing them.
Shaina
The ear canal resonates like a tube closed at one end. (See [link]Figure 17_03_HumEar[/link].) If ear canals range in length from 1.80 to 2.60 cm in an average population, what is the range of fundamental resonant frequencies? Take air temperature to be 37.0°C,37.0°C, which is the same as body tempe
Shaina
By what fraction will the frequencies produced by a wind instrument change when air temperature goes from 10.0°C10.0°C to 30.0°C30.0°C ? That is, find the ratio of the frequencies at those temperatures.
Shaina
what are vector quantity
Aondover Reply
Quantities that has both magnitude and direction
NNAEMEKA
what is lenses
Rhoda
vector quantities are those physical quantites which have magnitude as well as direction and obey the laws of vector algebra.
Huzaif
electric current has both magnitude and direction but it doesn't obey the laws of vector algebra, hence it is not a vector quantity.
Huzaif

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Source:  OpenStax, University physics volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12031/1.5
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