# 10.7 Newton’s second law for rotation

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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
• Calculate the torques on rotating systems about a fixed axis to find the angular acceleration
• Explain how changes in the moment of inertia of a rotating system affect angular acceleration with a fixed applied torque

In this section, we put together all the pieces learned so far in this chapter to analyze the dynamics of rotating rigid bodies. We have analyzed motion with kinematics and rotational kinetic energy but have not yet connected these ideas with force and/or torque. In this section, we introduce the rotational equivalent to Newton’s second law of motion and apply it to rigid bodies with fixed-axis rotation.

## Newton’s second law for rotation

We have thus far found many counterparts to the translational terms used throughout this text, most recently, torque, the rotational analog to force. This raises the question: Is there an analogous equation to Newton’s second law, $\Sigma \stackrel{\to }{F}=m\stackrel{\to }{a},$ which involves torque and rotational motion? To investigate this, we start with Newton’s second law for a single particle rotating around an axis and executing circular motion. Let’s exert a force $\stackrel{\to }{F}$ on a point mass m that is at a distance r from a pivot point ( [link] ). The particle is constrained to move in a circular path with fixed radius and the force is tangent to the circle. We apply Newton’s second law to determine the magnitude of the acceleration $a=F\text{/}m$ in the direction of $\stackrel{\to }{F}$ . Recall that the magnitude of the tangential acceleration is proportional to the magnitude of the angular acceleration by $a=r\alpha$ . Substituting this expression into Newton’s second law, we obtain

$F=mr\alpha .$

Multiply both sides of this equation by r ,

$rF=m{r}^{2}\alpha .$

Note that the left side of this equation is the torque about the axis of rotation, where r is the lever arm and F is the force, perpendicular to r . Recall that the moment of inertia for a point particle is $I=m{r}^{2}$ . The torque applied perpendicularly to the point mass in [link] is therefore

$\tau =I\alpha .$

The torque on the particle is equal to the moment of inertia about the rotation axis times the angular acceleration . We can generalize this equation to a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis.

## Newton’s second law for rotation

If more than one torque acts on a rigid body about a fixed axis, then the sum of the torques equals the moment of inertia times the angular acceleration:

$\sum _{i}{\tau }_{i}=I\alpha .$

The term $I\alpha$ is a scalar quantity and can be positive or negative (counterclockwise or clockwise) depending upon the sign of the net torque. Remember the convention that counterclockwise angular acceleration is positive. Thus, if a rigid body is rotating clockwise and experiences a positive torque (counterclockwise), the angular acceleration is positive.

[link] is Newton’s second law for rotation    and tells us how to relate torque, moment of inertia, and rotational kinematics. This is called the equation for rotational dynamics    . With this equation, we can solve a whole class of problems involving force and rotation. It makes sense that the relationship for how much force it takes to rotate a body would include the moment of inertia, since that is the quantity that tells us how easy or hard it is to change the rotational motion of an object.

#### Questions & Answers

what is electromagnetism
It is the study of the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ... It includes the electric force, which pushes all charged particles, and the magnetic force, which only pushes moving charges.
Energy
what is units?
units as in how
praise
What is th formular for force
F = m x a
Santos
State newton's second law of motion
can u tell me I cant remember
Indigo
force is equal to mass times acceleration
Santos
The acceleration of a system is directly proportional to the and in the same direction as the external force acting on the system and inversely proportional to its mass that is f=ma
David
The uniform seesaw shown below is balanced on a fulcrum located 3.0 m from the left end. The smaller boy on the right has a mass of 40 kg and the bigger boy on the left has a mass 80 kg. What is the mass of the board?
Consider a wave produced on a stretched spring by holding one end and shaking it up and down. Does the wavelength depend on the distance you move your hand up and down?
how can one calculate the value of a given quantity
means?
Manorama
To determine the exact value of a percent of a given quantity we need to express the given percent as fraction and multiply it by the given number.
AMIT
meaning
Winford
briefly discuss rocket in physics
ok let's discuss
Jay
What is physics
physics is the study of natural phenomena with concern with matter and energy and relationships between them
Ibrahim
a potential difference of 10.0v is connected across a 1.0AuF in an LC circuit. calculate the inductance of the inductor that should be connected to the capacitor for the circuit to oscillate at 1125Hza potential difference of 10.0v is connected across a 1.0AuF in an LC circuit. calculate the inducta
L= 0.002H
NNAEMEKA
how did you get it?
Favour
is the magnetic field of earth changing
what is thought to be the energy density of multiverse and is the space between universes really space
tibebeab
can you explain it
Guhan
Energy can not either created nor destroyed .therefore who created? and how did it come to existence?
this greatly depend on the kind of energy. for gravitational energy, it is result of the shattering effect violent collision of two black holes on the space-time which caused space time to be disturbed. this is according to recent study on gravitons and gravitational ripple. and many other studies
tibebeab
and not every thing have to pop into existence. and it could have always been there . and some scientists think that energy might have been the only entity in the euclidean(imaginary time T=it) which is time undergone wick rotation.
tibebeab
What is projectile?
An object that is launched from a device
Grant
2 dimensional motion under constant acceleration due to gravity
Awais
Not always 2D Awais
Grant
Awais
why not? a bullet is a projectile, so is a rock I throw
Grant
bullet travel in x and y comment same as rock which is 2 dimensional
Awais
components
Awais
no all pf you are wrong. projectile is any object propelled through space by excretion of a force which cease after launch
tibebeab
for awais, there is no such thing as constant acceleration due to gravity, because gravity change from place to place and from different height
tibebeab
it is the object not the motion or its components
tibebeab
where are body center of mass on present.
on the mid point
Suzana
is the magnetic field of the earth changing?
tibebeab
does shock waves come to effect when in earth's inner atmosphere or can it have an effect on the thermosphere or ionosphere?
tibebeab
and for the question from bal want do you mean human body or just any object in space
tibebeab
A stone is dropped into a well of 19.6m deep and the impact of sound heared after 2.056 second ,find the velocity of sound in air.
9.53 m/s ?
Kyla
In this case, the velocity of sound is 350 m/s.
Zahangir
why?
Kyla
some calculations is need. then you will get exact result.
Zahangir
i mean how? isn't it just a d over t?
Kyla
calculate the time it takes the stone to hit the ground then minus the stone's time to the total time... then divide the total distance by the difference of the time
Snuggly
awit lenard. Hahahah ari ga to!
Kyla