# 4.3 Projectile motion  (Page 7/13)

 Page 7 / 13

Check Your Understanding If the two golf shots in [link] were launched at the same speed, which shot would have the greatest range?

The golf shot at $30\text{°}.$

When we speak of the range of a projectile on level ground, we assume R is very small compared with the circumference of Earth. If, however, the range is large, Earth curves away below the projectile and the acceleration resulting from gravity changes direction along the path. The range is larger than predicted by the range equation given earlier because the projectile has farther to fall than it would on level ground, as shown in [link] , which is based on a drawing in Newton’s Principia . If the initial speed is great enough, the projectile goes into orbit. Earth’s surface drops 5 m every 8000 m. In 1 s an object falls 5 m without air resistance. Thus, if an object is given a horizontal velocity of $8000\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{m}\text{/}\text{s}$ (or $18,000\text{mi}\text{/}\text{hr}\right)$ near Earth’s surface, it will go into orbit around the planet because the surface continuously falls away from the object. This is roughly the speed of the Space Shuttle in a low Earth orbit when it was operational, or any satellite in a low Earth orbit. These and other aspects of orbital motion, such as Earth’s rotation, are covered in greater depth in Gravitation .

At PhET Explorations: Projectile Motion , learn about projectile motion in terms of the launch angle and initial velocity.

## Summary

• Projectile motion is the motion of an object subject only to the acceleration of gravity, where the acceleration is constant, as near the surface of Earth.
• To solve projectile motion problems, we analyze the motion of the projectile in the horizontal and vertical directions using the one-dimensional kinematic equations for x and y .
• The time of flight of a projectile launched with initial vertical velocity ${v}_{0y}$ on an even surface is given by
${T}_{tof}=\frac{2\left({v}_{0}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\theta \right)}{g}.$

This equation is valid only when the projectile lands at the same elevation from which it was launched.
• The maximum horizontal distance traveled by a projectile is called the range. Again, the equation for range is valid only when the projectile lands at the same elevation from which it was launched.

## Conceptual questions

Answer the following questions for projectile motion on level ground assuming negligible air resistance, with the initial angle being neither $0\text{°}$ nor $90\text{°}:$ (a) Is the velocity ever zero? (b) When is the velocity a minimum? A maximum? (c) Can the velocity ever be the same as the initial velocity at a time other than at t = 0? (d) Can the speed ever be the same as the initial speed at a time other than at t = 0?

a. no; b. minimum at apex of trajectory and maximum at launch and impact; c. no, velocity is a vector; d. yes, where it lands

Answer the following questions for projectile motion on level ground assuming negligible air resistance, with the initial angle being neither $0\text{°}$ nor $90\text{°}:$ (a) Is the acceleration ever zero? (b) Is the acceleration ever in the same direction as a component of velocity? (c) Is the acceleration ever opposite in direction to a component of velocity?

a particle projected from origin moving on x-y plane passes through P & Q having consituents (9,7) , (18,4) respectively.find eq. of trajectry.
definition of inertia
the reluctance of a body to start moving when it is at rest and to stop moving when it is in motion
charles
An inherent property by virtue of which the body remains in its pure state or initial state
Kushal
why current is not a vector quantity , whereas it have magnitude as well as direction.
why
daniel
the flow of current is not current
fitzgerald
bcoz it doesn't satisfy the algabric laws of vectors
Shiekh
The Electric current can be defined as the dot product of the current density and the differential cross-sectional area vector : ... So the electric current is a scalar quantity . Scalars are related to tensors by the fact that a scalar is a tensor of order or rank zero .
Kushal
what is binomial theorem
what is binary operations
Tollum
What is the formula to calculat parallel forces that acts in opposite direction?
position, velocity and acceleration of vector
hi
peter
hi
daniel
hi
Vedisha
*a plane flies with a velocity of 1000km/hr in a direction North60degree east.find it effective velocity in the easterly and northerly direction.*
imam
hello
Lydia
hello Lydia.
Sackson
What is momentum
isijola
hello
A rail way truck of mass 2400kg is hung onto a stationary trunk on a level track and collides with it at 4.7m|s. After collision the two trunk move together with a common speed of 1.2m|s. Calculate the mass of the stationary trunk
I need the solving for this question
philip
is the eye the same like the camera
I can't understand
Suraia
Josh
I think the question is that ,,, the working principal of eye and camera same or not?
Sardar
yes i think is same as the camera
what are the dimensions of surface tension
samsfavor
why is the "_" sign used for a wave to the right instead of to the left?
why classical mechanics is necessary for graduate students?
classical mechanics?
Victor
principle of superposition?
principle of superposition allows us to find the electric field on a charge by finding the x and y components
Kidus
Two Masses,m and 2m,approach each along a path at right angles to each other .After collision,they stick together and move off at 2m/s at angle 37° to the original direction of the mass m. What where the initial speeds of the two particles
MB
2m & m initial velocity 1.8m/s & 4.8m/s respectively,apply conservation of linear momentum in two perpendicular directions.
Shubhrant
A body on circular orbit makes an angular displacement given by teta(t)=2(t)+5(t)+5.if time t is in seconds calculate the angular velocity at t=2s
MB
2+5+0=7sec differentiate above equation w.r.t time, as angular velocity is rate of change of angular displacement.
Shubhrant
Ok i got a question I'm not asking how gravity works. I would like to know why gravity works. like why is gravity the way it is. What is the true nature of gravity?
gravity pulls towards a mass...like every object is pulled towards earth
Ashok
An automobile traveling with an initial velocity of 25m/s is accelerated to 35m/s in 6s,the wheel of the automobile is 80cm in diameter. find * The angular acceleration
(10/6) ÷0.4=4.167 per sec
Shubhrant
what is the formula for pressure?
force/area
Kidus
force is newtom
Kidus
and area is meter squared
Kidus
so in SI units pressure is N/m^2
Kidus
In customary United States units pressure is lb/in^2. pound per square inch
Kidus