<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

International collaboration in this area is moving into space with the joint EU/US project LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna). Earthquakes and other Earthly noises will be no problem for these monitoring spacecraft. LISA will complement LIGO by looking at much more massive black holes through the observation of gravitational-wave sources emitting much larger wavelengths. Three satellites will be placed in space above Earth in an equilateral triangle (with 5,000,000-km sides) ( [link] ). The system will measure the relative positions of each satellite to detect passing gravitational waves. Accuracy to within 10% of the size of an atom will be needed to detect any waves. The launch of this project might be as early as 2018.

“I’m sure LIGO will tell us something about the universe that we didn’t know before. The history of science tells us that any time you go where you haven’t been before, you usually find something that really shakes the scientific paradigms of the day. Whether gravitational wave astrophysics will do that, only time will tell.” —David Reitze, LIGO Input Optics Manager, University of Florida

NASA illustration of LISA, showing three spacecrafts positioned in orbits that form a triangular formation. The triangular formation is positioned to the left of the Sun, Earth, and Moon in the diagram. Figure not to scale.
Space-based future experiments for the measurement of gravitational waves. Shown here is a drawing of LISA’s orbit. Each satellite of LISA will consist of a laser source and a mass. The lasers will transmit a signal to measure the distance between each satellite’s test mass. The relative motion of these masses will provide information about passing gravitational waves. (credit: NASA)

The ideas presented in this section are but a glimpse into topics of modern physics that will be covered in much greater depth in later chapters.

Summary

  • The various types of forces that are categorized for use in many applications are all manifestations of the four basic forces in nature.
  • The properties of these forces are summarized in [link] .
  • Everything we experience directly without sensitive instruments is due to either electromagnetic forces or gravitational forces. The nuclear forces are responsible for the submicroscopic structure of matter, but they are not directly sensed because of their short ranges. Attempts are being made to show all four forces are different manifestations of a single unified force.
  • A force field surrounds an object creating a force and is the carrier of that force.

Conceptual questions

Explain, in terms of the properties of the four basic forces, why people notice the gravitational force acting on their bodies if it is such a comparatively weak force.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

What is the dominant force between astronomical objects? Why are the other three basic forces less significant over these very large distances?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Give a detailed example of how the exchange of a particle can result in an attractive force. (For example, consider one child pulling a toy out of the hands of another.)

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Problem exercises

(a) What is the strength of the weak nuclear force relative to the strong nuclear force? (b) What is the strength of the weak nuclear force relative to the electromagnetic force? Since the weak nuclear force acts at only very short distances, such as inside nuclei, where the strong and electromagnetic forces also act, it might seem surprising that we have any knowledge of it at all. We have such knowledge because the weak nuclear force is responsible for beta decay, a type of nuclear decay not explained by other forces.

(a) 1 × 10 13 size 12{1 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "13"} } } {}

(b) 1 × 10 11 size 12{1 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "11"} } } {}

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

(a) What is the ratio of the strength of the gravitational force to that of the strong nuclear force? (b) What is the ratio of the strength of the gravitational force to that of the weak nuclear force? (c) What is the ratio of the strength of the gravitational force to that of the electromagnetic force? What do your answers imply about the influence of the gravitational force on atomic nuclei?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

What is the ratio of the strength of the strong nuclear force to that of the electromagnetic force? Based on this ratio, you might expect that the strong force dominates the nucleus, which is true for small nuclei. Large nuclei, however, have sizes greater than the range of the strong nuclear force. At these sizes, the electromagnetic force begins to affect nuclear stability. These facts will be used to explain nuclear fusion and fission later in this text.

10 2 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

definition for wave?
Doc Reply
A disturbance that travel from one medium to another and without causing permanent change to its displacement
Fagbenro
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport (Mass transfer). ... There are two main types ofwaves: mechanical and electromagnetic. Mechanicalwaves propagate through a physical matter, whose substance is being deformed
Devansh
K
Manyo
what is physic
zalmia Reply
please gave me answar
zalmia
Study of matter and energy
Fagbenro
physics is the science of matter and energy and their interactions
Acquah
physics is the technology behind air and matter
Doc
Okay
William
hi sir
Bala
how easy to understanding physics sir
Bala
Easy to learn
William
31. Calculate the initial (from rest) acceleration of a proton in a 5.00×106 N/C electric field (such as created by a research Van de Graaff). Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy for electrostatics.
Catina Reply
what friction
Wisdom Reply
question on friction
Wisdom
the rubbing of one object or surface against another.
author
momentum is the product of mass and it's velocity.
Algayawi
what are bioelements?
Edina
Friction is a force that exist between two objects in contact. e.g. friction between road and car tires.
Eklu
With regards to a shielded cable, is there an induced current on the shield when the center conductor is carrying an AC Current? What is the formula?
John Reply
what is phenomena
remilekun Reply
no idea
Awoke
its phenomenon, an observable fact.
author
Mujy achy marks hasil krny k leay kesy tayari krni ho ge?plz help me I'M sooo woried
Imran Reply
konsi university m ho and konsa course h
Mohit
what is force
Chukwuemeka Reply
Force is the cause and momentum is its effect.
Salman
A force is a pull or a push on an object, causing an object to move or a moving object to stop.
Eklu
Find the velocity that make one full oscillation in 10 seconds and also makes 1.7meters in the same time
Prince Reply
yes
Rafael
OK
Oluwaseun
17m/s
Eklu
17m/s
Gabriel
0.17
Devansh
17m/s
Harrison
how did you solve it
Acquah
t=10s a=1.7m v=? u=0 but v=u+at but u=0 v=at 1.7×10=17 v=17m/s that's how I solved it.
Eklu
kk
Acquah
How is a=1.7m?
El
a is an acceleration
El
eklu..... I respect u....
Doc
its relating to time and oscillation made.
Eklu
You mean A as an amplitude?
El
ok
Emmanuel
what is voltmeter
Jeremiah Reply
A voltmeter is a device use in measuring electric potential in a volt.
Ahmad
Find out the equation of a simple harmonic progressive wave that have 0.2m with a frequency of 550hertz.If the wave moves along a positive x axis with the speed of 330m/s
Joseph Reply
is there a summary for this whole physics book
Fortune Reply
I don't think there is a summary for this physics
Adeyemi
nope
Idy
I want a guide book on Ray optics
Sharma
Where to get?
Sharma
ok
Jude
hi
Tina
pleasant evening
Idy
evening dr
Betman
what the difference between laws and principles
Mary Reply
principle are like rules... it can change BUT LAW IS LAW... confirmed theory
Fortune
principle is a guiding belief Law is authority or instruction
Faruk
Hello want to study physics but it seems so difficult
Joshua Reply
Yes
Aifuwa
I read it but when I try to solve questions it seems difficult
Aifuwa
Jerry where are you from
Joshua
can i study some problem on motion and projection motion
Weamie
hello pls am new here so i want someone to highlight me on this "application of expansion/contraction
Awoke
want 2 do is just dat u rest for some minute,then u go back to the simple one nd one u understand and then go back to d difficult one,u will now understand it better.
rebecca
yess
rebecca
what of mine
Awoke
yess
rebecca
ok
Awoke
iam new here
Mohamed
u are welcome
Awoke
hello am new. am I welcome
Miracle
yes you are😁
clifford
we can all learn and help each other
Osei
yeah you are right
Neyaz
so we can all share our ideas on a certain topic
Osei
sure
clifford
in beginning all subjects are difficult need to work hard
Mohammed
hi guyz
Lamin
How can I understand physics
Thankgod
Where will I start from
Thankgod
(fundamentals of physics) start there
clifford
OK thanks
Thankgod
Hello, im college now, engineering, 1 years, what book of physics i must use, to be understand easily?
Megryan
try physics for scientist and engineers/ cutnell and Johnson
clifford
Okey po!
Megryan
Is not difficult if u really want to learn
Gabriel
hello guys
Okotie
i love physics but it is difficult for me to solve
Okotie
I just saw d group on my physics app
Charles
xame here
Kpogho
pls guys i need help on my physics understanding and i know that if we share ideas together we can make this world a better place using more advance level of technology cos we are the new generation and we need to make technology more advance and introduced to under develop countries.
Sammy
i think we need to b focus when learning or studying physics,making research on topics or words that seems difficult , putting them into practice or analyzing the idea to our day to day activities and introducing it to other.
Sammy
i just think that is a way we can improve and highlighting our selves on physics so that those who want to learn will learn and those who want to know will know that there is still some generation scientists who can improve technology today.
Sammy
i don't think if what i sed make sense but i still think it those
Sammy
physics is a course that goes like this, if you don't put in the work it doesn't matter how much help you get, you will never truly understand
clifford
what is this group for please?
Charles
if u ask people or internet for understanding u will get d idea of how physics play it's game on every topic
Sammy
hellow guys am persuing science laboratory technology which physics book should I use so that I understand the concepts of physics well
Nasike
yh me too
Ozuruonye
essential physics or new school physics is good but u can also download MCQs physics handbooks
Sammy
just for beginners
Sammy
is true
Ali
hello guys
Okotie
please who can teach me physics
Okotie
Ok
Zazy
i can
Sammy
hi
divine
pls am new here and I really want someone to teach me physics
divine
explanations on harmonic motion
Tumwiine Reply
Practice Key Terms 2

Get the best College physics course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'College physics' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask