# 15.1 The first law of thermodynamics  (Page 5/9)

 Page 5 / 9

The body provides us with an excellent indication that many thermodynamic processes are irreversible . An irreversible process can go in one direction but not the reverse, under a given set of conditions. For example, although body fat can be converted to do work and produce heat transfer, work done on the body and heat transfer into it cannot be converted to body fat. Otherwise, we could skip lunch by sunning ourselves or by walking down stairs. Another example of an irreversible thermodynamic process is photosynthesis. This process is the intake of one form of energy—light—by plants and its conversion to chemical potential energy. Both applications of the first law of thermodynamics are illustrated in [link] . One great advantage of conservation laws such as the first law of thermodynamics is that they accurately describe the beginning and ending points of complex processes, such as metabolism and photosynthesis, without regard to the complications in between. [link] presents a summary of terms relevant to the first law of thermodynamics.

Summary of terms for the first law of thermodynamics, ΔU=Q−W
Term Definition
$U$ Internal energy—the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of a system’s atoms and molecules. Can be divided into many subcategories, such as thermal and chemical energy. Depends only on the state of a system (such as its $P$ , $V$ , and $T$ ), not on how the energy entered the system. Change in internal energy is path independent.
$Q$ Heat—energy transferred because of a temperature difference. Characterized by random molecular motion. Highly dependent on path. $Q$ entering a system is positive.
$W$ Work—energy transferred by a force moving through a distance. An organized, orderly process. Path dependent. $W$ done by a system (either against an external force or to increase the volume of the system) is positive.

## Section summary

• The first law of thermodynamics is given as $\Delta U=Q-W$ , where $\Delta U$ is the change in internal energy of a system, $Q$ is the net heat transfer (the sum of all heat transfer into and out of the system), and $W$ is the net work done (the sum of all work done on or by the system).
• Both $Q$ and $W$ are energy in transit; only $\Delta U$ represents an independent quantity capable of being stored.
• The internal energy $U$ of a system depends only on the state of the system and not how it reached that state.
• Metabolism of living organisms, and photosynthesis of plants, are specialized types of heat transfer, doing work, and internal energy of systems.

## Conceptual questions

Describe the photo of the tea kettle at the beginning of this section in terms of heat transfer, work done, and internal energy. How is heat being transferred? What is the work done and what is doing it? How does the kettle maintain its internal energy?

Suppose that a grandfather clock is running slowly; that is, the time it takes to complete each cycle is longer than it should be. Should you (@) shorten or (b) lengthen the pendulam to make the clock keep attain the preferred time?
discuss under damped
resistance of thermometer in relation to temperature
how
Bernard
that resistance is not measured yet, it may be probably in the next generation of scientists
Paul
Is fundamental quantities under physical quantities?
please I didn't not understand the concept of the physical therapy
physiotherapy - it's a practice of exercising for healthy living.
Paul
what chapter is this?
Anderson
this is not in this book, it's from other experiences.
Paul
Sure
What is Boyce law
how to convert meter per second to kilometers per hour
Divide with 3.6
Mateo
multiply by (km/1000m) x (3600 s/h) -> 3.6
2 how heat loss is prevented in a vacuum flask
what is science
Helen
logical reasoning for a particular phenomenon.
Ajay
I don't know anything about it 😔. I'm sorry, please forgive 😔
due to non in contact mean no conduction and no convection bec of non conducting base and walls and also their is a grape between the layer like to take the example of thermo flask
Abdul
dimensions v²=u²+2at
what if time is not given in finding the average velocity?
the magnetic circuit of a certain of the flux paths in each of the long and short sides being 25cm and 20cm reprectielectrove. there is an air gap of 2mm long in one the long sides if a flux density of 0.8weber/m is to produce in the magnet of 1500 turns..
How do you calculate precision
what module is that?
Fillemon
Chemisty 1A?
Fillemon
No it has something to do with measurements bro... What we did today in class
Sacky
Tah bra honestly I didn't understand a thing in that class..when re your Tutorials?
Fillemon
Friday bro... But the topics we did are in this app... Just try to master them quickly before the test dates... Are you done with the Maths sheet
Sacky
I eat ass
Anderson
I'll work on the maths sheet tomorrow bra @Sacky Malyenge but I'll try mastering them
Fillemon
I'll eat your mom's ass with a side of tendies
Anderson
@Fillemon Nanwaapo
Anderson
lol, hush
Emi
There are very large numbers of charged particles in most objects. Why, then, don’t most objects exhibit static electricity?
Because there's an equal number of negative and positive charges... objects are neutral in nature
NELSON
when a ball rolls on a smooth level ground,the motion of its centre is?
what is electro magnetic field?
Mary
electromagnetic field is a special type of field been produced by electric charges..!!! like the word electro from Electricity and the word magnetic from Magnetism.. so it is more of a join field..!!!
NELSON
Electromagnetic field is caused by moving electric charge
when a ball rolls on a smooth level ground,the motion of its centre is?
Mumeh