# 30.3 Bohr’s theory of the hydrogen atom  (Page 6/14)

 Page 6 / 14

But there are limits to Bohr’s theory. It cannot be applied to multielectron atoms, even one as simple as a two-electron helium atom. Bohr’s model is what we call semiclassical . The orbits are quantized (nonclassical) but are assumed to be simple circular paths (classical). As quantum mechanics was developed, it became clear that there are no well-defined orbits; rather, there are clouds of probability. Bohr’s theory also did not explain that some spectral lines are doublets (split into two) when examined closely. We shall examine many of these aspects of quantum mechanics in more detail, but it should be kept in mind that Bohr did not fail. Rather, he made very important steps along the path to greater knowledge and laid the foundation for all of atomic physics that has since evolved.

## Phet explorations: models of the hydrogen atom

How did scientists figure out the structure of atoms without looking at them? Try out different models by shooting light at the atom. Check how the prediction of the model matches the experimental results.

## Section summary

• The planetary model of the atom pictures electrons orbiting the nucleus in the way that planets orbit the sun. Bohr used the planetary model to develop the first reasonable theory of hydrogen, the simplest atom. Atomic and molecular spectra are quantized, with hydrogen spectrum wavelengths given by the formula
$\frac{1}{\lambda }=R\left(\frac{1}{{n}_{\text{f}}^{2}}-\frac{1}{{n}_{\text{i}}^{2}}\right),$
where $\lambda$ is the wavelength of the emitted EM radiation and $R$ is the Rydberg constant, which has the value
$R=\text{1.097}×{\text{10}}^{7}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{-1}\text{.}$
• The constants ${n}_{i}$ and ${n}_{f}$ are positive integers, and ${n}_{i}$ must be greater than ${n}_{f}$ .
• Bohr correctly proposed that the energy and radii of the orbits of electrons in atoms are quantized, with energy for transitions between orbits given by
$\Delta E=\text{hf}={E}_{\text{i}}-{E}_{\text{f}},$
where $\Delta E$ is the change in energy between the initial and final orbits and $\text{hf}$ is the energy of an absorbed or emitted photon. It is useful to plot orbital energies on a vertical graph called an energy-level diagram.
• Bohr proposed that the allowed orbits are circular and must have quantized orbital angular momentum given by
$L={m}_{e}{\text{vr}}_{n}=n\frac{h}{2\pi }\left(n=1, 2, 3 \dots \right),$
where $L$ is the angular momentum, ${r}_{n}$ is the radius of the $n\text{th}$ orbit, and $h$ is Planck’s constant. For all one-electron (hydrogen-like) atoms, the radius of an orbit is given by
${r}_{n}=\frac{{n}^{2}}{Z}{a}_{\text{B}}\text{(allowed orbits}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}n=1, 2, 3, ...\right),$
$Z$ is the atomic number of an element (the number of electrons is has when neutral) and ${a}_{\text{B}}$ is defined to be the Bohr radius, which is
${a}_{\text{B}}=\frac{{h}^{2}}{{4\pi }^{2}{m}_{e}{\text{kq}}_{e}^{2}}=\text{0.529}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{10}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}\text{.}$
• Furthermore, the energies of hydrogen-like atoms are given by
${E}_{n}=-\frac{{Z}^{2}}{{n}^{2}}{E}_{0}\left(n=1, 2, 3 ...\right)\text{,}$
where ${E}_{0}$ is the ground-state energy and is given by
${E}_{0}=\frac{{2\pi }^{2}{q}_{e}^{4}{m}_{e}{k}^{2}}{{h}^{2}}=\text{13.6 eV.}$
Thus, for hydrogen,
${E}_{n}=-\frac{\text{13.6 eV}}{{n}^{2}}\left(n,=,1, 2, 3 ...\right)\text{.}$
• The Bohr Theory gives accurate values for the energy levels in hydrogen-like atoms, but it has been improved upon in several respects.

## Conceptual questions

How do the allowed orbits for electrons in atoms differ from the allowed orbits for planets around the sun? Explain how the correspondence principle applies here.

Calculate the work done by an 85.0-kg man who pushes a crate 4.00 m up along a ramp that makes an angle of 20.0º20.0º with the horizontal. (See [link] .) He exerts a force of 500 N on the crate parallel to the ramp and moves at a constant speed. Be certain to include the work he does on the crate an
What is thermal heat all about
why uniform circular motion is called a periodic motion?.
when a train start from A & it returns at same station A . what is its acceleration?
what is distance of A to B of the stations and what is the time taken to reach B from A
BELLO
the information provided is not enough
aliyu
Hmmmm maybe the question is logical
yusuf
where are the parameters for calculation
HENRY
there is enough information to calculate an AVERAGE acceleration
Kwok
mistake, there is enough information to calculate an average velocity
Kwok
~\
Abel
what is the unit of momentum
Abel
wha are the types of radioactivity ?
what are the types of radioactivity
Worku
what is static friction
It is the opposite of kinetic friction
Mark
static fiction is friction between two surfaces in contact an none of sliding over on another, while Kinetic friction is friction between sliding surfaces in contact.
MINDERIUM
I don't get it,if it's static then there will be no friction.
author
It means that static friction is that friction that most be overcome before a body can move
kingsley
static friction is a force that keeps an object from moving, and it's the opposite of kinetic friction.
author
It is a force a body must overcome in order for the body to move.
Eboh
If a particle accelerator explodes what happens
Eboh
why we see the edge effect in case of the field lines of capacitor?
Arnab
what is wave
what is force
Muhammed
force is something which is responsible for the object to change its position
MINDERIUM
more technically it is the product of mass of an object and Acceleration produced in it
MINDERIUM
wave is disturbance in any medium
iqra
energy is distributed in any medium through particles of medium.
iqra
If a particle accelerator explodes what happens
we have to first figure out .... wats a particle accelerator first
Teh
What is surface tension
The resistive force of surface.
iqra
Who can tutor me on simple harmonic motion
on both a string and peldulum?
Anya
spring*
Anya
Yea
yusuf
Do you have a chit-chat contact
yusuf
I dont have social media but i do have an email?
Anya
Which is
yusuf
Where are you chatting from
yusuf
I don't understand the basics of this group
Jimmy
teach him SHM init
Anya
Simple harmonic motion
yusuf
how.an.equipotential.line is two dimension and equipotential surface is three dimension ?
definition of mass of conversion
Force equals mass time acceleration. Weight is a force and it can replace force in the equation. The acceleration would be gravity, which is an acceleration. To change from weight to mass divide by gravity (9.8 m/s^2).
Marisa
how many subject is in physics
the write question should be " How many Topics are in O- Level Physics, or other branches of physics.
effiom
how many topic are in physics
Praise
Praise what level are you
yusuf
If u are doing a levels in your first year you do AS topics therefore you do 5 big topic i.e particles radiation, waves and optics, mechanics,materials, electricity. After that you do A level topics like Specific Harmonic motion circular motion astrophysics depends really
Anya
Yeah basics of physics prin8
yusuf
Heat nd Co for a level
yusuf
yh I need someone to explain something im tryna solve . I'll send the question if u down for it
a ripple tank experiment a vibrating plane is used to generate wrinkles in the water .if the distance between two successive point is 3.5cm and the wave travel a distance of 31.5cm find the frequency of the vibration
Tamdy
hallow
Boniface
Boniface
the range of objects and phenomena studied in physics is
Boniface