# 13.5 Phase changes

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• Interpret a phase diagram.
• State Dalton’s law.
• Identify and describe the triple point of a gas from its phase diagram.
• Describe the state of equilibrium between a liquid and a gas, a liquid and a solid, and a gas and a solid.

Up to now, we have considered the behavior of ideal gases. Real gases are like ideal gases at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, however, the interactions between the molecules and their volumes cannot be ignored. The molecules are very close (condensation occurs) and there is a dramatic decrease in volume, as seen in [link] . The substance changes from a gas to a liquid. When a liquid is cooled to even lower temperatures, it becomes a solid. The volume never reaches zero because of the finite volume of the molecules. A sketch of volume versus temperature for a real gas at constant pressure. The linear (straight line) part of the graph represents ideal gas behavior—volume and temperature are directly and positively related and the line extrapolates to zero volume at – 273 . 15 º C size 12{ +- "273" "." "15"°C} {} , or absolute zero. When the gas becomes a liquid, however, the volume actually decreases precipitously at the liquefaction point. The volume decreases slightly once the substance is solid, but it never becomes zero.

High pressure may also cause a gas to change phase to a liquid. Carbon dioxide, for example, is a gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, but becomes a liquid under sufficiently high pressure. If the pressure is reduced, the temperature drops and the liquid carbon dioxide solidifies into a snow-like substance at the temperature $–\text{78}\text{º}\text{C}$ . Solid ${\text{CO}}_{2}$ is called “dry ice.” Another example of a gas that can be in a liquid phase is liquid nitrogen $\left({\text{LN}}_{2}\right)$ . ${\text{LN}}_{2}$ is made by liquefaction of atmospheric air (through compression and cooling). It boils at 77 K $\left(–\text{196}\text{º}\text{C}\right)$ at atmospheric pressure. ${\text{LN}}_{2}$ is useful as a refrigerant and allows for the preservation of blood, sperm, and other biological materials. It is also used to reduce noise in electronic sensors and equipment, and to help cool down their current-carrying wires. In dermatology, ${\text{LN}}_{2}$ is used to freeze and painlessly remove warts and other growths from the skin.

## PV Diagrams

We can examine aspects of the behavior of a substance by plotting a graph of pressure versus volume, called a PV diagram    . When the substance behaves like an ideal gas, the ideal gas law describes the relationship between its pressure and volume. That is,

$\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{PV}=\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{NkT}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\left(\text{ideal gas}\right)\text{.}$

Now, assuming the number of molecules and the temperature are fixed,

$\text{PV}=\text{constant}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\left(\text{ideal gas, constant temperature}\right)\text{.}$

For example, the volume of the gas will decrease as the pressure increases. If you plot the relationship $\text{PV}=\text{constant}$ on a $\text{PV}$ diagram, you find a hyperbola. [link] shows a graph of pressure versus volume. The hyperbolas represent ideal-gas behavior at various fixed temperatures, and are called isotherms . At lower temperatures, the curves begin to look less like hyperbolas—the gas is not behaving ideally and may even contain liquid. There is a critical point    —that is, a critical temperature    —above which liquid cannot exist. At sufficiently high pressure above the critical point, the gas will have the density of a liquid but will not condense. Carbon dioxide, for example, cannot be liquefied at a temperature above $\text{31}\text{.}0\text{º}\text{C}$ . Critical pressure is the minimum pressure needed for liquid to exist at the critical temperature. [link] lists representative critical temperatures and pressures.

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states that electric current in a given metallic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied between its end, provided that the temperature of the conductor and other physical factors such as length and cross-sectional area remains constant. mathematically V=IR
ANIEFIOK
A body travelling at a velocity of 30ms^-1 in a straight line is brought to rest by application of brakes. if it covers a distance of 100m during this period, find the retardation.
what's acceleration
The change in position of an object with respect to time
Mfizi
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Pamilerin
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Laura
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acceleration it is the rate of change in velocity with time
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acceleration is change in velocity per rate of time
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Stephen
Ohm's law is related to resistance by which volatge is the multiplication of current and resistance ( U=RI)
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How do you determine the magnitude of force
mass × acceleration OR Work done ÷ distance
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acute astigmatism?
the difference between virtual work and virtual displacement
How do you calculate uncertainties
What is Elasticity
using a micro-screw gauge,the thickness of a piece of a A4 white paper is measured to be 0.5+or-0.05 mm. If the length of the A4 paper is 26+or-0.2 cm, determine the volume of the A4 paper in: a). Cubic centimeters b). Cubic meters
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why it is possible for an object(man) to stay on air without falling down?
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the air molecules are very light enough to oppose the gravitational pull of the earth on the man..... hence, freefall occurs
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E=MC^2
study of matter and energy and an inter-relation between them.
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wich method we use to find the potential on a grounded sphere
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Physics generally is the study of everything around us.
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