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This law was postulated in the 1930s, after the first and second laws of thermodynamics had been developed and named. It is called the zeroth law because it comes logically before the first and second laws (discussed in Thermodynamics ). An example of this law in action is seen in babies in incubators: babies in incubators normally have very few clothes on, so to an observer they look as if they may not be warm enough. However, the temperature of the air, the cot, and the baby is the same, because they are in thermal equilibrium, which is accomplished by maintaining air temperature to keep the baby comfortable.

Does the temperature of a body depend on its size?

No, the system can be divided into smaller parts each of which is at the same temperature. We say that the temperature is an intensive quantity. Intensive quantities are independent of size.

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Section summary

  • Temperature is the quantity measured by a thermometer.
  • Temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of atoms and molecules in a system.
  • Absolute zero is the temperature at which there is no molecular motion.
  • There are three main temperature scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin.
  • Temperatures on one scale can be converted to temperatures on another scale using the following equations:
    T º F = 9 5 T º C + 32 size 12{T rSub { size 8{°F} } = { {9} over {5} } T rSub { size 8{°C} } +"32"} {}
    T º C = 5 9 T º F 32 size 12{T rSub { size 8{°C} } = { {5} over {9} } left (T rSub { size 8{°F} } - "32" right )} {}
    T K = T º C + 273 . 15 size 12{T rSub { size 8{K} } =T rSub { size 8{°C} } +"273" "." "15"} {}
    T º C = T K 273 . 15 size 12{T rSub { size 8{°C} } =T rSub { size 8{K} } - "273" "." "15"} {}
  • Systems are in thermal equilibrium when they have the same temperature.
  • Thermal equilibrium occurs when two bodies are in contact with each other and can freely exchange energy.
  • The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that when two systems, A and B, are in thermal equilibrium with each other, and B is in thermal equilibrium with a third system, C, then A is also in thermal equilibrium with C.

Conceptual questions

What does it mean to say that two systems are in thermal equilibrium?

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Give an example of a physical property that varies with temperature and describe how it is used to measure temperature.

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When a cold alcohol thermometer is placed in a hot liquid, the column of alcohol goes down slightly before going up. Explain why.

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If you add boiling water to a cup at room temperature, what would you expect the final equilibrium temperature of the unit to be? You will need to include the surroundings as part of the system. Consider the zeroth law of thermodynamics.

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Problems&Exercises

What is the Fahrenheit temperature of a person with a 39 . 0 º C size 12{"39" "." 0°C} {} fever?

102 º F size 12{"102"°F} {}

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Frost damage to most plants occurs at temperatures of 28 . 0 º F size 12{"28" "." 0°F} {} or lower. What is this temperature on the Kelvin scale?

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To conserve energy, room temperatures are kept at 68 . 0 º F size 12{"68" "." 0°F} {} in the winter and 78 . 0 º F size 12{"78" "." 0°F} {} in the summer. What are these temperatures on the Celsius scale?

20 . 0 º C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} and 25 . 6 º C size 12{"25" "." 6°C} {}

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A tungsten light bulb filament may operate at 2900 K. What is its Fahrenheit temperature? What is this on the Celsius scale?

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The surface temperature of the Sun is about 5750 K. What is this temperature on the Fahrenheit scale?

9890 º F size 12{"9890"°F} {}

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One of the hottest temperatures ever recorded on the surface of Earth was 134 º F size 12{"134"°F} {} in Death Valley, CA. What is this temperature in Celsius degrees? What is this temperature in Kelvin?

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(a) Suppose a cold front blows into your locale and drops the temperature by 40.0 Fahrenheit degrees. How many degrees Celsius does the temperature decrease when there is a 40 . 0 º F size 12{"40" "." 0°F} {} decrease in temperature? (b) Show that any change in temperature in Fahrenheit degrees is nine-fifths the change in Celsius degrees.

(a) 22 . 2 º C size 12{"22" "." 2°C} {}

(b) Δ T º F = T 2 º F T 1 º F = 9 5 T 2 º C + 32 . 0 º 9 5 T 1 º C + 32 . 0 º = 9 5 T 2 º C T 1 º C = 9 5 Δ T º C

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(a) At what temperature do the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales have the same numerical value? (b) At what temperature do the Fahrenheit and Kelvin scales have the same numerical value?

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Questions & Answers

Calculate the work done by an 85.0-kg man who pushes a crate 4.00 m up along a ramp that makes an angle of 20.0º20.0º with the horizontal. (See [link] .) He exerts a force of 500 N on the crate parallel to the ramp and moves at a constant speed. Be certain to include the work he does on the crate an
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What is thermal heat all about
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why uniform circular motion is called a periodic motion?.
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when a train start from A & it returns at same station A . what is its acceleration?
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Abel
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what are the types of radioactivity
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It is the opposite of kinetic friction
Mark
static fiction is friction between two surfaces in contact an none of sliding over on another, while Kinetic friction is friction between sliding surfaces in contact.
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I don't get it,if it's static then there will be no friction.
author
It means that static friction is that friction that most be overcome before a body can move
kingsley
static friction is a force that keeps an object from moving, and it's the opposite of kinetic friction.
author
It is a force a body must overcome in order for the body to move.
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If a particle accelerator explodes what happens
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Muhammed
force is something which is responsible for the object to change its position
MINDERIUM
more technically it is the product of mass of an object and Acceleration produced in it
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wave is disturbance in any medium
iqra
energy is distributed in any medium through particles of medium.
iqra
If a particle accelerator explodes what happens
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we have to first figure out .... wats a particle accelerator first
Teh
What is surface tension
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The resistive force of surface.
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Simple harmonic motion
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umezurike Reply
Force equals mass time acceleration. Weight is a force and it can replace force in the equation. The acceleration would be gravity, which is an acceleration. To change from weight to mass divide by gravity (9.8 m/s^2).
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Practice Key Terms 9

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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