# 8.5 Magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor  (Page 2/2)

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A strong magnetic field is applied across a tube and a current is passed through the fluid at right angles to the field, resulting in a force on the fluid parallel to the tube axis as shown. The absence of moving parts makes this attractive for moving a hot, chemically active substance, such as the liquid sodium employed in some nuclear reactors. Experimental artificial hearts are testing with this technique for pumping blood, perhaps circumventing the adverse effects of mechanical pumps. (Cell membranes, however, are affected by the large fields needed in MHD, delaying its practical application in humans.) MHD propulsion for nuclear submarines has been proposed, because it could be considerably quieter than conventional propeller drives. The deterrent value of nuclear submarines is based on their ability to hide and survive a first or second nuclear strike. As we slowly disassemble our nuclear weapons arsenals, the submarine branch will be the last to be decommissioned because of this ability (See [link] .) Existing MHD drives are heavy and inefficient—much development work is needed.

## Section summary

• The magnetic force on current-carrying conductors (when current direction and magnetic field direction are perpendicular) is given by
$F=IlB,$
where $I$ is the current, $l$ is the length of a straight conductor in a uniform magnetic field $B$ , and $I\perp B$ . The force follows RHR-1 with the thumb in the direction of $I$ .

## Conceptual questions

Draw a sketch of the situation in [link] showing the direction of electrons carrying the current, and use RHR-1 to verify the direction of the force on the wire.

Verify that the direction of the force in an MHD drive, such as that in [link] , does not depend on the sign of the charges carrying the current across the fluid.

Why would a magnetohydrodynamic drive work better in ocean water than in fresh water? Also, why would superconducting magnets be desirable?

Which is more likely to interfere with compass readings, AC current in your refrigerator or DC current when you start your car? Explain.

## Problems&Exercises

What is the direction of the magnetic force on the current in each of the six cases in [link] ? Note that $\odot$ indicates "coming out of the page" and $\otimes$ means "going into the page."

(a) west (left)

(b) into page

(c) north (up)

(d) no force

(e) east (right)

(f) south (down)

What is the direction of a current that experiences the magnetic force shown in each of the three cases in [link] , assuming the current runs perpendicular to $B$ ? Note that $\odot$ indicates "coming out of the page" and $\otimes$ means "going into the page."

What is the direction of the magnetic field that produces the magnetic force shown on the currents in each of the three cases in [link] , assuming $\mathbf{\text{B}}$ is perpendicular to $\mathbf{\text{I}}$ ? Note that $\otimes$ means "going into the page."

(a) into page

(b) west (left)

(c) out of page

(a) What is the force per meter on a lightning bolt at the equator that carries 20,000 A perpendicular to the Earth’s $3\text{.}\text{00}×{\text{10}}^{-5}\text{-T}$ field? (b) What is the direction of the force if the current is straight up and the Earth’s field direction is due north, parallel to the ground?

(a) A DC power line for a light-rail system carries 1000 A. If Earth’s magnetic field at this location is $5.00×{10}^{-5}$ T, what is the maximum possible magnetic force on a 100-m section of this line? (b) Discuss practical concerns this presents, if any.

(a) 5.00 N

(b) This is about a pound of force per 100 m of wire, which is much less than the weight of the wire itself. Therefore, it does not cause any special concerns.

What force is exerted on the water in an MHD drive utilizing a 25.0-cm-diameter tube, if 100-A current is passed across the tube that is perpendicular to a 2.00-T magnetic field? (The relatively small size of this force indicates the need for very large currents and magnetic fields to make practical MHD drives.)

A wire carrying a 30.0-A current passes between the poles of a strong magnet that is perpendicular to its field and experiences a 2.16-N force on the 4.00 cm of wire in the field. What is the average field strength?

1.80 T

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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