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Section summary

  • The approach to two-dimensional collisions is to choose a convenient coordinate system and break the motion into components along perpendicular axes. Choose a coordinate system with the x -axis parallel to the velocity of the incoming particle.
  • Two-dimensional collisions of point masses where mass 2 is initially at rest conserve momentum along the initial direction of mass 1 (the x -axis), stated by m 1 v 1 = m 1 v 1 cos θ 1 + m 2 v 2 cos θ 2 and along the direction perpendicular to the initial direction (the y -axis) stated by 0 = m 1 v 1 y + m 2 v 2 y .
  • The internal kinetic before and after the collision of two objects that have equal masses is
    1 2 mv 1 2 = 1 2 mv 1 2 + 1 2 mv 2 2 + mv 1 v 2 cos θ 1 θ 2 .
  • Point masses are structureless particles that cannot spin.

Conceptual questions

[link] shows a cube at rest and a small object heading toward it. (a) Describe the directions (angle θ 1 size 12{θ rSub { size 8{1} } } {} ) at which the small object can emerge after colliding elastically with the cube. How does θ 1 size 12{θ rSub { size 8{1} } } {} depend on b size 12{b} {} , the so-called impact parameter? Ignore any effects that might be due to rotation after the collision, and assume that the cube is much more massive than the small object. (b) Answer the same questions if the small object instead collides with a massive sphere.

A ball m one moves horizontally to the right with speed v one. It will collide with a stationary square labeled capital m two that is rotated at approximately forty-five degrees. The point of impact is on a face of the square a distance b above the center of the square. After the collision the ball is shown heading off at an angle theta one above the horizontal with a speed v one prime. The square remains essentially stationary (v 2 prime is approximately zero).
A small object approaches a collision with a much more massive cube, after which its velocity has the direction θ 1 size 12{θ rSub { size 8{1} } } {} . The angles at which the small object can be scattered are determined by the shape of the object it strikes and the impact parameter b size 12{b} {} .
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Problems&Exercises

Two identical pucks collide on an air hockey table. One puck was originally at rest. (a) If the incoming puck has a speed of 6.00 m/s and scatters to an angle of 30 . ,what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the second puck? (You may use the result that θ 1 θ 2 = 90º for elastic collisions of objects that have identical masses.) (b) Confirm that the collision is elastic.

(a) 3.00 m/s, 60º below x size 12{x} {} -axis

(b) Find speed of first puck after collision: 0 = m v 1 sin 30º m v 2 sin 60º v 1 = v 2 sin 60º sin 30º = 5.196 m/s

Verify that ratio of initial to final KE equals one: KE = 1 2 mv 1 2 = 18 m J KE = 1 2 mv 1 2 + 1 2 mv 2 2 = 18 m J KE KE′ = 1.00

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Confirm that the results of the example [link] do conserve momentum in both the x size 12{x} {} - and y size 12{y} {} -directions.

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A 3000-kg cannon is mounted so that it can recoil only in the horizontal direction. (a) Calculate its recoil velocity when it fires a 15.0-kg shell at 480 m/s at an angle of 20 . size 12{"20" "." 0°} {} above the horizontal. (b) What is the kinetic energy of the cannon? This energy is dissipated as heat transfer in shock absorbers that stop its recoil. (c) What happens to the vertical component of momentum that is imparted to the cannon when it is fired?

(a) 2 . 26 m/s size 12{ - 2 "." "26"`"m/s"} {}

(b) 7 . 63 × 10 3 J size 12{7 "." "63" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `J} {}

(c) The ground will exert a normal force to oppose recoil of the cannon in the vertical direction. The momentum in the vertical direction is transferred to the earth. The energy is transferred into the ground, making a dent where the cannon is. After long barrages, cannon have erratic aim because the ground is full of divots.

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Professional Application

A 5.50-kg bowling ball moving at 9.00 m/s collides with a 0.850-kg bowling pin, which is scattered at an angle of 85 . size 12{"85" "." 0°} {} to the initial direction of the bowling ball and with a speed of 15.0 m/s. (a) Calculate the final velocity (magnitude and direction) of the bowling ball. (b) Is the collision elastic? (c) Linear kinetic energy is greater after the collision. Discuss how spin on the ball might be converted to linear kinetic energy in the collision.

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Professional Application

Ernest Rutherford (the first New Zealander to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry) demonstrated that nuclei were very small and dense by scattering helium-4 nuclei ( 4 He ) from gold-197 nuclei ( 197 Au ) . The energy of the incoming helium nucleus was 8.00 × 10 13 J , and the masses of the helium and gold nuclei were 6.68 × 10 27 kg and 3.29 × 10 25 kg , respectively (note that their mass ratio is 4 to 197). (a) If a helium nucleus scatters to an angle of 120º during an elastic collision with a gold nucleus, calculate the helium nucleus’s final speed and the final velocity (magnitude and direction) of the gold nucleus. (b) What is the final kinetic energy of the helium nucleus?

(a) 5 . 36 × 10 5 m/s at 29.5º

(b) 7 . 52 × 10 13 J size 12{7 "." "52" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "13"} } `J} {}

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Professional Application

Two cars collide at an icy intersection and stick together afterward. The first car has a mass of 1200 kg and is approaching at 8 . 00 m/s size 12{8 "." "00"`"m/s"} {} due south. The second car has a mass of 850 kg and is approaching at 17 . 0 m/s size 12{"17" "." 0`"m/s"} {} due west. (a) Calculate the final velocity (magnitude and direction) of the cars. (b) How much kinetic energy is lost in the collision? (This energy goes into deformation of the cars.) Note that because both cars have an initial velocity, you cannot use the equations for conservation of momentum along the x size 12{x} {} -axis and y size 12{y} {} -axis; instead, you must look for other simplifying aspects.

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Starting with equations m 1 v 1 = m 1 v 1 cos θ 1 + m 2 v 2 cos θ 2 and 0 = m 1 v 1 sin θ 1 + m 2 v 2 sin θ 2 for conservation of momentum in the x - and y -directions and assuming that one object is originally stationary, prove that for an elastic collision of two objects of equal masses,

1 2 mv 1 2 = 1 2 mv 1 2 + 1 2 mv 2 2 + mv 1 v 2 cos θ 1 θ 2

as discussed in the text.

We are given that m 1 = m 2 m size 12{m rSub { size 8{1} } =m rSub { size 8{2} } equiv m} {} . The given equations then become:

v 1 = v 1 cos θ 1 + v 2 cos θ 2

and

0 = v 1 sin θ 1 + v 2 sin θ 2 .

Square each equation to get

v 1 2 = v 1 2 cos 2 θ 1 + v 2 2 cos 2 θ 2 + 2 v 1 v 2 cos θ 1 cos θ 2 0 = v 1 2 sin 2 θ 1 + v 2 2 sin 2 θ 2 + 2 v 1 v 2 sin θ 1 sin θ 2 .

Add these two equations and simplify:

v 1 2 = v 1 2 + v 2 2 + 2 v 1 v 2 cos θ 1 cos θ 2 + sin θ 1 sin θ 2 = v 1 2 + v 2 2 + 2 v 1 v 2 1 2 cos θ 1 θ 2 + 1 2 cos θ 1 + θ 2 + 1 2 cos θ 1 θ 2 1 2 cos θ 1 + θ 2 = v 1 2 + v 2 2 + 2 v 1 v 2 cos θ 1 θ 2 .

Multiply the entire equation by 1 2 m size 12{ { { size 8{1} } over { size 8{2} } } m} {} to recover the kinetic energy:

1 2 mv 1 2 = 1 2 m v 1 2 + 1 2 m v 2 2 + m v 1 v 2 cos θ 1 θ 2
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Integrated Concepts

A 90.0-kg ice hockey player hits a 0.150-kg puck, giving the puck a velocity of 45.0 m/s. If both are initially at rest and if the ice is frictionless, how far does the player recoil in the time it takes the puck to reach the goal 15.0 m away?

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Questions & Answers

An American traveler in New Zealand carries a transformer to convert New Zealand’s standard 240 V to 120 V so that she can use some small appliances on her trip.
nkombo Reply
What is the ratio of turns in the primary and secondary coils of her transformer?
nkombo
How electric lines and equipotential surface are mutually perpendicular?
Abid Reply
The potential difference between any two points on the surface is zero that implies È.Ŕ=0, Where R is the distance between two different points &E= Electric field intensity. From which we have cos þ =0, where þ is the angle between the directions of field and distance line, as E andR are zero. Thus
MAHADEV
sorry..E and R are non zero...
MAHADEV
By how much leeway (both percentage and mass) would you have in the selection of the mass of the object in the previous problem if you did not wish the new period to be greater than 2.01 s or less than 1.99 s?
Elene Reply
what Is linear momentum
Victoria Reply
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Blessing Reply
where
Fayyaz
Myanmar
Pyae
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Iroko
hello
Abdu
Describe an experiment to determine short half life
Tyson Reply
what is science
Kenedy Reply
it's a natural phenomena
Hassan
sap
Emmanuel
please can someone help me with explanations of wave
Benedine
A 20MH coil has a resistance of 50 ohms and us connected in series with a capacitor to a 520MV supply
Musa Reply
what is physics
Caya Reply
it is the science which we used in our daily life
Sujitha
Physics is the branch of science that deals with the study of matter and the interactions it undergoes with energy
Junior
it is branch of science which deals with study of happening in the human life
AMIT
A 20MH coil has a resistance of 50 ohms and is connected in series with a capacitor to a 250MV supply if the circuit is to resonate at 100KHZ, Determine 1: the capacitance of the capacitor 2: the working voltage of the circuit, given that pie =3.142
Musa
Physics is the branch of science that deals with the study of matter and the interactions it undergoes with energy
Kelly
Heat is transfered by thermal contact but if it is transfered by conduction or radiation, is it possible to reach in thermal equilibrium?
Eden Reply
Yes, It is possible by conduction if Surface is Adiabatic
Astronomy
Yeah true ilwith d help of Adiabatic
Kelly
what are the fundamentals qualities
Magret Reply
what is physic3
Kalilu
what is physic
Kalilu
Physics? Is a branch of science dealing with matter in relation to energy.
Moses
Physic... Is a purging medicine, which stimulates evacuation of the bowels.
Moses
are you asking for qualities or quantities?
Noman
give examples of three dimensional frame of reference
Ekwunazor Reply
Universe
Noman
Yes the Universe itself
Astronomy
Examine different types of shoes, including sports shoes and thongs. In terms of physics, why are the bottom surfaces designed as they are? What differences will dry and wet conditions make for these surfaces?
Lathan Reply
sports shoes are designed in such a way they are gripped well with your feet and their bases have and high friction surfaces, Thong shoes are for comfort, these are easily removed and light weight. these are usually low friction surfaces but in wet conditions they offer greater friction.
Noman
thong sleepers are usually used in restrooms.
Noman
what is wave
Ochigbo Reply
The phenomenon of transfer of energy
Noman
how does time flow in one dimension
Lord Reply
yeah that was a mistake
Lord
if it flows in three dimensions does it mean if an object theoretically moves beyond the speed of light it won't experience time
Lord
but if an object moves beyond the speed of light time stops right for it
Lord
yes but at light speed it ceases
Lord
yes it always flow from past to future.
Noman
Practice Key Terms 1

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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