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Conceptual questions

What is the relationship between the accuracy and uncertainty of a measurement?

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Prescriptions for vision correction are given in units called diopters (D). Determine the meaning of that unit. Obtain information (perhaps by calling an optometrist or performing an internet search) on the minimum uncertainty with which corrections in diopters are determined and the accuracy with which corrective lenses can be produced. Discuss the sources of uncertainties in both the prescription and accuracy in the manufacture of lenses.

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Problems&Exercises

Express your answers to problems in this section to the correct number of significant figures and proper units.

Suppose that your bathroom scale reads your mass as 65 kg with a 3% uncertainty. What is the uncertainty in your mass (in kilograms)?

2 kg

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A good-quality measuring tape can be off by 0.50 cm over a distance of 20 m. What is its percent uncertainty?

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(a) A car speedometer has a 5.0 % size 12{5.0%} {} uncertainty. What is the range of possible speeds when it reads 90 km/h size 12{"90"" km/h"} {} ? (b) Convert this range to miles per hour. 1 km = 0.6214 mi size 12{"1 km" "=" "0.6214 mi"} {}

  1. 85 . 5 to 94 . 5 km/h size 12{"85" "." 5" to 94" "." "5 km/h"} {}
  2. 53 . 1 to 58 . 7 mi/h size 12{"53" "." 1" to 58" "." "7 mi/h"} {}
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An infant’s pulse rate is measured to be 130 ± 5 size 12{"130" +- 5} {} beats/min. What is the percent uncertainty in this measurement?

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(a) Suppose that a person has an average heart rate of 72.0 beats/min. How many beats does he or she have in 2.0 y? (b) In 2.00 y? (c) In 2.000 y?

(a) 7 . 6 × 10 7  beats size 12{7 "." 6 times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } " beats"} {}

(b) 7 . 57 × 10 7  beats size 12{7 "." "57" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } " beats"} {}

(c) 7 . 57 × 10 7  beats size 12{7 "." "57" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } " beats"} {}

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A can contains 375 mL of soda. How much is left after 308 mL is removed?

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State how many significant figures are proper in the results of the following calculations: (a) 106 . 7 98 . 2 / 46 . 210 1 . 01 size 12{ left ("106" "." 7 right ) left ("98" "." 2 right )/ left ("46" "." "210" right ) left (1 "." "01" right )} {} (b) 18 . 7 2 size 12{ left ("18" "." 7 right ) rSup { size 8{2} } } {} (c) 1 . 60 × 10 19 3712 size 12{ left (1 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "19"} } right ) left ("3712" right )} {} .

  1. 3
  2. 3
  3. 3
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(a) How many significant figures are in the numbers 99 and 100? (b) If the uncertainty in each number is 1, what is the percent uncertainty in each? (c) Which is a more meaningful way to express the accuracy of these two numbers, significant figures or percent uncertainties?

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(a) If your speedometer has an uncertainty of 2 . 0 km/h size 12{2 "." 0" km/h"} {} at a speed of 90 km/h size 12{"90"" km/h"} {} , what is the percent uncertainty? (b) If it has the same percent uncertainty when it reads 60 km/h size 12{"60"" km/h"} {} , what is the range of speeds you could be going?

a) 2 . 2 % size 12{3 "." 3%} {}

(b) 59 to 61 km/h size 12{"59 to 61 km/h"} {}

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(a) A person’s blood pressure is measured to be 120 ± 2 mm Hg size 12{"120" +- 2" mm Hg"} {} . What is its percent uncertainty? (b) Assuming the same percent uncertainty, what is the uncertainty in a blood pressure measurement of 80 mm Hg size 12{"80"" mm Hg"} {} ?

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A person measures his or her heart rate by counting the number of beats in 30 s size 12{"30"" s"} {} . If 40 ± 1 size 12{"40" +- 1} {} beats are counted in 30 . 0 ± 0 . 5 s size 12{"30" "." 0 +- 0 "." 5" s"} {} , what is the heart rate and its uncertainty in beats per minute?

80 ± 3 beats/min size 12{"80" +- 3`"beats/min"} {}

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What is the area of a circle 3 . 102 cm size 12{3 "." "102"" cm"} {} in diameter?

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If a marathon runner averages 9.5 mi/h, how long does it take him or her to run a 26.22-mi marathon?

2 . 8 h size 12{2 "." 8" h"} {}

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A marathon runner completes a 42 . 188 -km size 12{"42" "." "188""-km"} {} course in 2 h size 12{2" h"} {} , 30 min, and 12 s size 12{"12"" s"} {} . There is an uncertainty of 25 m size 12{"25"" m"} {} in the distance traveled and an uncertainty of 1 s in the elapsed time. (a) Calculate the percent uncertainty in the distance. (b) Calculate the uncertainty in the elapsed time. (c) What is the average speed in meters per second? (d) What is the uncertainty in the average speed?

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The sides of a small rectangular box are measured to be 1 . 80 ± 0 . 01 cm size 12{1 "." "80" +- 0 "." "01"" cm"} {} , {} 2 . 05 ± 0 . 02 cm, and 3 . 1 ± 0 . 1 cm size 12{2 "." "05" +- 0 "." "02"" cm, and 3" "." 1 +- 0 "." "1 cm"} {} long. Calculate its volume and uncertainty in cubic centimeters.

11 ± 1 cm 3 size 12{"11" +- 1" cm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

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When non-metric units were used in the United Kingdom, a unit of mass called the pound-mass (lbm) was employed, where 1 lbm = 0 . 4539 kg size 12{1" lbm"=0 "." "4539"`"kg"} {} . (a) If there is an uncertainty of 0 . 0001 kg size 12{0 "." "0001"`"kg"} {} in the pound-mass unit, what is its percent uncertainty? (b) Based on that percent uncertainty, what mass in pound-mass has an uncertainty of 1 kg when converted to kilograms?

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The length and width of a rectangular room are measured to be 3 . 955 ± 0 . 005 m size 12{3 "." "955" +- 0 "." "005"" m"} {} and 3 . 050 ± 0 . 005 m size 12{3 "." "050" +- 0 "." "005"" m"} {} . Calculate the area of the room and its uncertainty in square meters.

12 . 06 ± 0 . 04 m 2 size 12{"12" "." "06" +- 0 "." "04"" m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

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A car engine moves a piston with a circular cross section of 7 . 500 ± 0 . 002 cm size 12{7 "." "500" +- 0 "." "002"`"cm"} {} diameter a distance of 3 . 250 ± 0 . 001 cm size 12{3 "." "250" +- 0 "." "001"`"cm"} {} to compress the gas in the cylinder. (a) By what amount is the gas decreased in volume in cubic centimeters? (b) Find the uncertainty in this volume.

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Questions & Answers

the meaning of phrase in physics
Chovwe Reply
is the meaning of phrase in physics
Chovwe
write an expression for a plane progressive wave moving from left to right along x axis and having amplitude 0.02m, frequency of 650Hz and speed if 680ms-¹
Gabriel Reply
how does a model differ from a theory
Friday Reply
To use the vocabulary of model theory and meta-logic, a theory is a set of sentences which can be derived from a formal model using some rule of inference (usually just modus ponens). So, for example, Number Theory is the set of sentences true about numbers. But the model is a structure together wit
Jesilda
with an iterpretation.
Jesilda
what is vector quantity
Ridwan Reply
Vector quality have both direction and magnitude, such as Force, displacement, acceleration and etc.
Besmellah
Is the force attractive or repulsive between the hot and neutral lines hung from power poles? Why?
Jack Reply
what's electromagnetic induction
Chinaza Reply
electromagnetic induction is a process in which conductor is put in a particular position and magnetic field keeps varying.
Lukman
wow great
Salaudeen
what is mutual induction?
je
mutual induction can be define as the current flowing in one coil that induces a voltage in an adjacent coil.
Johnson
how to undergo polarization
Ajayi Reply
show that a particle moving under the influence of an attractive force mu/y³ towards the axis x. show that if it be projected from the point (0,k) with the component velocities U and V parallel to the axis of x and y, it will not strike the axis of x unless u>v²k² and distance uk²/√u-vk as origin
Gabriel Reply
show that a particle moving under the influence of an attractive force mu/y^3 towards the axis x. show that if it be projected from the point (0,k) with the component velocities U and V parallel to the axis of x and y, it will not strike the axis of x unless u>v^2k^2 and distance uk^2/√u-k as origin
Gabriel Reply
No idea.... Are you even sure this question exist?
Mavis
I can't even understand the question
Ademiye
yes it was an assignment question "^"represent raise to power pls
Gabriel
mu/y³ u>v²k² uk²/√u-vk please help me out
Gabriel
An engineer builds two simple pendula. Both are suspended from small wires secured to the ceiling of a room. Each pendulum hovers 2 cm above the floor. Pendulum 1 has a bob with a mass of 10kg . Pendulum 2 has a bob with a mass of 100 kg . Describe how the motion of the pendula will differ if the bobs are both displaced by 12º .
Imtiaz Reply
no ideas
Augstine
if u at an angle of 12 degrees their period will be same so as their velocity, that means they both move simultaneously since both both hovers at same length meaning they have the same length
Ademiye
Modern cars are made of materials that make them collapsible upon collision. Explain using physics concept (Force and impulse), how these car designs help with the safety of passengers.
Isaac Reply
calculate the force due to surface tension required to support a column liquid in a capillary tube 5mm. If the capillary tube is dipped into a beaker of water
Mildred Reply
find the time required for a train Half a Kilometre long to cross a bridge almost kilometre long racing at 100km/h
Ademiye
method of polarization
Ajayi
What is atomic number?
Makperr Reply
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Deborah
type of thermodynamics
Yinka Reply
oxygen gas contained in a ccylinder of volume has a temp of 300k and pressure 2.5×10Nm
Taheer Reply
Practice Key Terms 6

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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