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Would the previous question make any sense for an isochoric process? Explain your answer.

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We ordinarily say that Δ U = 0 size 12{DU=0} {} for an isothermal process. Does this assume no phase change takes place? Explain your answer.

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The temperature of a rapidly expanding gas decreases. Explain why in terms of the first law of thermodynamics. (Hint: Consider whether the gas does work and whether heat transfer occurs rapidly into the gas through conduction.)

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Which cyclical process represented by the two closed loops, ABCFA and ABDEA, on the PV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagram in the figure below produces the greatest net work? Is that process also the one with the smallest work input required to return it to point A? Explain your responses.

The figure shows a graph of pressure versus volume. The pressure is along the Y axis and the volume is plotted along the X axis. The graph consists of a rectangle, A B C F, superimposed on a slightly larger rectangle, A B D E. The lines A B, C F, and D E are parallel to the X axis and lines B C D and A F E are parallel to the Y axis.
The two cyclical processes shown on this PV diagram start with and return the system to the conditions at point A, but they follow different paths and produce different amounts of work.
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A real process may be nearly adiabatic if it occurs over a very short time. How does the short time span help the process to be adiabatic?

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It is unlikely that a process can be isothermal unless it is a very slow process. Explain why. Is the same true for isobaric and isochoric processes? Explain your answer.

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Problem exercises

A car tire contains 0 . 0380 m 3 size 12{0 "." "0380"" m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} of air at a pressure of 2 . 20 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{2 "." "20"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} (about 32 psi). How much more internal energy does this gas have than the same volume has at zero gauge pressure (which is equivalent to normal atmospheric pressure)?

6 . 77 × 10 3 J size 12{6 "." "77" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `J} {}

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A helium-filled toy balloon has a gauge pressure of 0.200 atm and a volume of 10.0 L. How much greater is the internal energy of the helium in the balloon than it would be at zero gauge pressure?

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Steam to drive an old-fashioned steam locomotive is supplied at a constant gauge pressure of 1 . 75 × 10 6 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." "75"´"10" rSup { size 8{6} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} (about 250 psi) to a piston with a 0.200-m radius. (a) By calculating P Δ V size 12{PDV} {} , find the work done by the steam when the piston moves 0.800 m. Note that this is the net work output, since gauge pressure is used. (b) Now find the amount of work by calculating the force exerted times the distance traveled. Is the answer the same as in part (a)?

(a) W = P Δ V = 1 . 76 × 10 5 J size 12{W=PΔV= {underline {1 "." "76" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " J"}} } {}

(b) W = Fd = 1 . 76 × 10 5 J size 12{W= ital "Fd"= ital "PAd"= {underline {1 "." "76" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " J"}} } {} . Yes, the answer is the same.

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A hand-driven tire pump has a piston with a 2.50-cm diameter and a maximum stroke of 30.0 cm. (a) How much work do you do in one stroke if the average gauge pressure is 2 . 40 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{2 "." "40"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} (about 35 psi)? (b) What average force do you exert on the piston, neglecting friction and gravitational force?

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Calculate the net work output of a heat engine following path ABCDA in the figure below.

A graph is shown of pressure versus volume, with pressure on the Y axis and volume on the X axis. A parallelogram connects four points are on the graph, A, B, C, and D. A is at y equals 2 point 6 times 10 to the six newtons per meter squared and x equals 1 point zero times ten to the minus three meters cubed. A downward sloping line connects A to B. B is at y equals 2 point zero, x equals four. A vertical line connects B to C. C is at y equals zero point 6, x equals 4. A line connects C to D. D is at y equals one point zero, x equals one point zero. A vertical line connects D to A. A diagonal line also connects D and B.

W = 4 . 5 × 10 3 J size 12{W=4 "." 5 times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `J} {}

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What is the net work output of a heat engine that follows path ABDA in the figure above, with a straight line from B to D? Why is the work output less than for path ABCDA? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Thermodynamics .

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Unreasonable Results

What is wrong with the claim that a cyclical heat engine does 4.00 kJ of work on an input of 24.0 kJ of heat transfer while 16.0 kJ of heat transfers to the environment?

W size 12{W} {} is not equal to the difference between the heat input and the heat output.

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(a) A cyclical heat engine, operating between temperatures of 450º C size 12{"450"°C} {} and 150º C size 12{"150"°C} {} produces 4.00 MJ of work on a heat transfer of 5.00 MJ into the engine. How much heat transfer occurs to the environment? (b) What is unreasonable about the engine? (c) Which premise is unreasonable?

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Construct Your Own Problem

Consider a car’s gasoline engine. Construct a problem in which you calculate the maximum efficiency this engine can have. Among the things to consider are the effective hot and cold reservoir temperatures. Compare your calculated efficiency with the actual efficiency of car engines.

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Construct Your Own Problem

Consider a car trip into the mountains. Construct a problem in which you calculate the overall efficiency of the car for the trip as a ratio of kinetic and potential energy gained to fuel consumed. Compare this efficiency to the thermodynamic efficiency quoted for gasoline engines and discuss why the thermodynamic efficiency is so much greater. Among the factors to be considered are the gain in altitude and speed, the mass of the car, the distance traveled, and typical fuel economy.

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Questions & Answers

what is Andromeda
smart Reply
what is velocity
Fati Reply
displacement per unit time
Murlidhar
the ratec of displacement over time
Jamie
the rate of displacement over time
Jamie
the rate of displacement over time
Jamie
did you need it right now
Pathani
up to tomorrow
Santosh
i need a description and derivation of kinetic theory of gas
Santosh
pls the sum of change in kinetic and potential energy is always what ?
Faith
i need a description and derivation of kinetic theory of gas
Santosh
did you need it right now
Pathani
A few grains of table salt were put in a cup of cold water kept at constant temperature and left undisturbed. eventually all the water tasted salty. this is due to?
Faith Reply
Aunt Faith,please i am thinking the dissolution here from the word "solution" exposed the grains of salt to be dissolved in the water.Thankyou
Junior
dissolution please
Junior
Aunt Faith,please i am thinking the dissolution here from the word "solution" exposed the grains of salt to be dissolved in the water.Thankyou
Junior
it is either diffusion or osmosis. just confused
Faith
due to solvation....
Pathani
what is solvation pls
Faith
water molecule surround the salt molecules . solute solute attraction break in the same manner solvent solvent interaction also break. as a result solute and solvent attraction took place.
Pathani
okay thanks
Faith
my pleasure
Pathani
what is solvation pls
Faith
water act as a solvent and salt act as solute
Pathani
okay thanks
Faith
its ok
Pathani
due to solvation....
Pathani
water molecule surround the salt molecules . solute solute attraction break in the same manner solvent solvent interaction also break. as a result solute and solvent attraction took place.
Pathani
what is magnetism
Eze Reply
physical phenomena arising from force caused by magnets
Mohammad
is the phenomenon of attracting magnetic substance like iron, cobalt etc.
Faith
what is heat
John Reply
Heat is a form of energy where molecules move
saran
Can you please help me with some questions
Janet Reply
topic-- question
Salman
I know this is unrelated to physics, but how do I get the MCQs and essay to work. they arent clickable.
Jake Reply
20cm3 of 1mol/dm3 solution of a monobasic acid HA and 20cm3 of 1mol/dm3 solution of NaOH are mixed in a calorimeter and a temperature rise of 274K is observed. If the heat capacity of the calorimeter is 160J/K, calculate the enthalpy of neutralization of the acid.(SHCw=4.2J/g/K) Formula. (ms*cs+C)*T
Lilian Reply
why is a body moving at a constant speed able to accelerate
Lilian Reply
20cm3 of 1mol/dm3 solution of a monobasic acid HA and 20cm3 of 1mol/dm3 solution of NaOH are mixed in a calorimeter and a temperature rise of 274K is observed. If the heat capacity of the calorimeter is 160J/K, calculate the enthalpy of neutralization of the acid.(SHCw=4.2J/g/K) Formula. (ms*cs+C)*T
Lilian
because it changes only direction and the speed is kept constant
Justice
Why is the sky blue...?
Star Reply
It's filtered light from the 2 forms of radiation emitted from the sun. It's mainly filtered UV rays. There's a theory titled Scatter Theory that covers this topic
Mike
A heating coil of resistance 30π is connected to a 240v supply for 5min to boil a quantity of water in a vessel of heat capacity 200jk. If the initial temperature of water is 20°c and it specific heat capacity is 4200jkgk calculate the mass of water in a vessel
fasawe Reply
A thin equi convex lens is placed on a horizontal plane mirror and a pin held 20 cm vertically above the lens concise in position with its own image the space between the undersurface of d lens and the mirror is filled with water (refractive index =1•33)and then to concise with d image d pin has to
Azummiri Reply
Be raised until its distance from d lens is 27cm find d radius of curvature
Azummiri
what happens when a nuclear bomb and atom bomb bomb explode add the same time near each other
FlAsH Reply
A monkey throws a coconut straight upwards from a coconut tree with a velocity of 10 ms-1. The coconut tree is 30 m high. Calculate the maximum height of the coconut from the top of the coconut tree? Can someone answer my question
Fatinizzah Reply
v2 =u2 - 2gh 02 =10x10 - 2x9.8xh h = 100 ÷ 19.6 answer = 30 - h.
Ramonyai
why is the north side is always referring to n side of magnetic
sam Reply
Practice Key Terms 6

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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