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Conceptual questions

More force is required to pull the plug in a full bathtub than when it is empty. Does this contradict Archimedes’ principle? Explain your answer.

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Do fluids exert buoyant forces in a “weightless” environment, such as in the space shuttle? Explain your answer.

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Will the same ship float higher in salt water than in freshwater? Explain your answer.

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Marbles dropped into a partially filled bathtub sink to the bottom. Part of their weight is supported by buoyant force, yet the downward force on the bottom of the tub increases by exactly the weight of the marbles. Explain why.

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Problem exercises

What fraction of ice is submerged when it floats in freshwater, given the density of water at 0°C is very close to 1000 kg /m 3 size 12{"1000"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} ?

91 . 7% size 12{"91" "." 7%} {}

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Logs sometimes float vertically in a lake because one end has become water-logged and denser than the other. What is the average density of a uniform-diameter log that floats with 20.0% of its length above water?

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Find the density of a fluid in which a hydrometer having a density of 0 . 750 g /mL size 12{0 "." "750"`"g/mL"} {} floats with 92.0% size 12{"92" "." 0%} {} of its volume submerged.

815 kg /m 3 size 12{"815"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

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If your body has a density of 995 kg /m 3 size 12{"995"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} , what fraction of you will be submerged when floating gently in: (a) Freshwater? (b) Salt water, which has a density of 1027 kg /m 3 size 12{"1027"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} ?

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Bird bones have air pockets in them to reduce their weight—this also gives them an average density significantly less than that of the bones of other animals. Suppose an ornithologist weighs a bird bone in air and in water and finds its mass is 45.0 g and its apparent mass when submerged is 3.60 g size 12{3 "." "60"`g} {} (the bone is watertight). (a) What mass of water is displaced? (b) What is the volume of the bone? (c) What is its average density?

(a) 41.4 g

(b) 41 . 4 cm 3 size 12{"41" "." 4`"cm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

(c) 1 . 09 g /cm 3 size 12{1 "." "09"`"g/cm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

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A rock with a mass of 540 g in air is found to have an apparent mass of 342 g when submerged in water. (a) What mass of water is displaced? (b) What is the volume of the rock? (c) What is its average density? Is this consistent with the value for granite?

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Archimedes’ principle can be used to calculate the density of a fluid as well as that of a solid. Suppose a chunk of iron with a mass of 390.0 g in air is found to have an apparent mass of 350.5 g when completely submerged in an unknown liquid. (a) What mass of fluid does the iron displace? (b) What is the volume of iron, using its density as given in [link] (c) Calculate the fluid’s density and identify it.

(a) 39.5 g

(b) 50 cm 3 size 12{"50"`"cm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

(c) 0 . 79 g/cm 3 size 12{0 "." "79"`"g/cm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

It is ethyl alcohol.

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In an immersion measurement of a woman’s density, she is found to have a mass of 62.0 kg in air and an apparent mass of 0.0850 kg when completely submerged with lungs empty. (a) What mass of water does she displace? (b) What is her volume? (c) Calculate her density. (d) If her lung capacity is 1.75 L, is she able to float without treading water with her lungs filled with air?

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Some fish have a density slightly less than that of water and must exert a force (swim) to stay submerged. What force must an 85.0-kg grouper exert to stay submerged in salt water if its body density is 1015 kg/m 3 size 12{"1015" `"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} ?

8.21 N

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(a) Calculate the buoyant force on a 2.00-L helium balloon. (b) Given the mass of the rubber in the balloon is 1.50 g, what is the net vertical force on the balloon if it is let go? You can neglect the volume of the rubber.

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(a) What is the density of a woman who floats in freshwater with 4.00% of her volume above the surface? This could be measured by placing her in a tank with marks on the side to measure how much water she displaces when floating and when held under water (briefly). (b) What percent of her volume is above the surface when she floats in seawater?

(a) 960 kg/m 3 size 12{"960" `"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

(b) 6.34%

She indeed floats more in seawater.

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A certain man has a mass of 80 kg and a density of 955 kg/m 3 size 12{"955" `"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} (excluding the air in his lungs). (a) Calculate his volume. (b) Find the buoyant force air exerts on him. (c) What is the ratio of the buoyant force to his weight?

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A simple compass can be made by placing a small bar magnet on a cork floating in water. (a) What fraction of a plain cork will be submerged when floating in water? (b) If the cork has a mass of 10.0 g and a 20.0-g magnet is placed on it, what fraction of the cork will be submerged? (c) Will the bar magnet and cork float in ethyl alcohol?

(a) 0 . 24 size 12{0 "." "24"} {}

(b) 0 . 68 size 12{0 "." "68"} {}

(c) Yes, the cork will float because ρ obj < ρ ethyl alcohol ( 0 . 678 g/cm 3 < 0 . 79 g/cm 3 ) size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{"obj"} }<ρ rSub { size 8{"ethyl"`"alcohol"} } \( 0 "." "678"`"g/cm" rSup { size 8{3} }<0 "." "79"`"g/cm" rSup { size 8{3} } \) } {}

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What fraction of an iron anchor’s weight will be supported by buoyant force when submerged in saltwater?

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Scurrilous con artists have been known to represent gold-plated tungsten ingots as pure gold and sell them to the greedy at prices much below gold value but deservedly far above the cost of tungsten. With what accuracy must you be able to measure the mass of such an ingot in and out of water to tell that it is almost pure tungsten rather than pure gold?

The difference is 0.006%.

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A twin-sized air mattress used for camping has dimensions of 100 cm by 200 cm by 15 cm when blown up. The weight of the mattress is 2 kg. How heavy a person could the air mattress hold if it is placed in freshwater?

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Referring to [link] , prove that the buoyant force on the cylinder is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced (Archimedes’ principle). You may assume that the buoyant force is F 2 F 1 size 12{F rSub { size 8{2} } - F rSub { size 8{1} } } {} and that the ends of the cylinder have equal areas A size 12{A} {} . Note that the volume of the cylinder (and that of the fluid it displaces) equals ( h 2 h 1 ) A size 12{ \( h rSub { size 8{2} } - h rSub { size 8{1} } \) A} {} .

F net = F 2 F 1 = P 2 A P 1 A = P 2 P 1 A size 12{F rSub { size 8{"net"} } =F rSub { size 8{2} } - F rSub { size 8{1} } =P rSub { size 8{2} } A - P rSub { size 8{1} } A= left (P rSub { size 8{2} } - P rSub { size 8{1} } right )A} {}

= h 2 ρ fl g h 1 ρ fl g A size 12{ {}= left (h rSub { size 8{2} } ρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } g - h rSub { size 8{1} } ρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } g right )A} {}

= h 2 h 1 ρ fl gA size 12{ {}= left (h rSub { size 8{2} } - h rSub { size 8{1} } right )ρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } ital "gA"} {}

where ρ fl size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } } {} = density of fluid. Therefore,

F net = ( h 2 h 1 ) fl g = V fl ρ fl g = m fl g = w fl size 12{F rSub { size 8{"net"} } = \( h rSub { size 8{2} } - h rSub { size 8{1} } \) Aρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } g=V rSub { size 8{"fl"} } ρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } g=m rSub { size 8{"fl"} } g=w rSub { size 8{"fl"} } } {}

where is w fl size 12{w rSub { size 8{"fl"} } } {} the weight of the fluid displaced.

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(a) A 75.0-kg man floats in freshwater with 3.00% of his volume above water when his lungs are empty, and 5.00% of his volume above water when his lungs are full. Calculate the volume of air he inhales—called his lung capacity—in liters. (b) Does this lung volume seem reasonable?

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Questions & Answers

Calculate the Newton's the weight of a 2.5 Kilogram of melon. What is its weight in pound?
Rialyn Reply
calculate the tension of the cable when a buoy with 0.5m and mass of 20kg
Iga Reply
what is displacement
Nyamza Reply
what is the meaning of physics
Alausa Reply
to study objects in motion and how they interact or take part in the natural phenomenon of the universe.
Phill
an object that has a small mass and an object has a large mase have the same momentum which has high kinetic energy
Faith Reply
The with smaller mass
Gift
how
Faith
Since you said they have the same momentum.. So meaning that there is more like an inverse proportionality in the quantities used to find the momentum. We are told that the the is a larger mass and a smaller mass., so we can conclude that the smaller mass had higher velocity as compared to other one
Gift
Mathamaticaly correct
megavado
Mathmaticaly correct :)
megavado
I have proven it by using my own values
Gift
Larger mass=4g Smaller mass=2g Momentum of both=8 Meaning V for L =2 and V for S=4 Now find there kinetic energies using the data presented
Gift
grateful soul...thanks alot
Faith
Welcome
Gift
2 stones are thrown vertically upward from the ground, one with 3 times the initial speed of the other. If the faster stone takes 10 s to return to the ground, how long will it take the slower stone to return? If the slower stone reaches a maximum height of H, how high will the faster stone go
Julliene Reply
30s
Gift
how can i calculate it's height
Julliene
is speed the same as velocity
Faith Reply
no
Nebil
in a question i ought to find the momentum but was given just mass and speed
Faith
just multiply mass and speed then you have the magnitude of momentem
Nebil
Yes
Gift
Consider speed to be velocity
Gift
it worked our . . thanks
Faith
Distinguish between semi conductor and extrinsic conductors
Okame Reply
Suppose that a grandfather clock is running slowly; that is, the time it takes to complete each cycle is longer than it should be. Should you (@) shorten or (b) lengthen the pendulam to make the clock keep attain the preferred time?
Aj Reply
I think you shorten am not sure
Uche
shorten it, since that is practice able using the simple pendulum as experiment
Silvia
it'll always give the results needed no need to adjust the length, it is always measured by the starting time and ending time by the clock
Paul
it's not in relation to other clocks
Paul
wat is d formular for newton's third principle
Silvia
okay
Silvia
shorten the pendulum string because the difference in length affects the time of oscillation.if short , the time taken will be adjusted.but if long ,the time taken will be twice the previous cycle.
FADILAT
discuss under damped
Prince Reply
resistance of thermometer in relation to temperature
Ifeanyi Reply
how
Bernard
that resistance is not measured yet, it may be probably in the next generation of scientists
Paul
Is fundamental quantities under physical quantities?
Igwe Reply
please I didn't not understand the concept of the physical therapy
John Reply
physiotherapy - it's a practice of exercising for healthy living.
Paul
what chapter is this?
Anderson
this is not in this book, it's from other experiences.
Paul
am new in the group
Daniel
please I have probably with calculate please can you please and help me out
John Reply
Sure
Gift
What is Boyce law
Sly Reply
Boyles law states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to pressure acting on that given gas if the temperature remains constant which is: V<k/p or V=k(1/p)
FADILAT
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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