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  • Discuss the existence of dark matter.
  • Explain neutrino oscillations and their consequences.

One of the most exciting problems in physics today is the fact that there is far more matter in the universe than we can see. The motion of stars in galaxies and the motion of galaxies in clusters imply that there is about 10 times as much mass as in the luminous objects we can see. The indirectly observed non-luminous matter is called dark matter    . Why is dark matter a problem? For one thing, we do not know what it is. It may well be 90% of all matter in the universe, yet there is a possibility that it is of a completely unknown form—a stunning discovery if verified. Dark matter has implications for particle physics. It may be possible that neutrinos actually have small masses or that there are completely unknown types of particles. Dark matter also has implications for cosmology, since there may be enough dark matter to stop the expansion of the universe. That is another problem related to dark matter—we do not know how much there is. We keep finding evidence for more matter in the universe, and we have an idea of how much it would take to eventually stop the expansion of the universe, but whether there is enough is still unknown.


The first clues that there is more matter than meets the eye came from the Swiss-born American astronomer Fritz Zwicky in the 1930s; some initial work was also done by the American astronomer Vera Rubin. Zwicky measured the velocities of stars orbiting the galaxy, using the relativistic Doppler shift of their spectra (see [link] (a)). He found that velocity varied with distance from the center of the galaxy, as graphed in [link] (b). If the mass of the galaxy was concentrated in its center, as are its luminous stars, the velocities should decrease as the square root of the distance from the center. Instead, the velocity curve is almost flat, implying that there is a tremendous amount of matter in the galactic halo. Although not immediately recognized for its significance, such measurements have now been made for many galaxies, with similar results. Further, studies of galactic clusters have also indicated that galaxies have a mass distribution greater than that obtained from their brightness (proportional to the number of stars), which also extends into large halos surrounding the luminous parts of galaxies. Observations of other EM wavelengths, such as radio waves and X rays, have similarly confirmed the existence of dark matter. Take, for example, X rays in the relatively dark space between galaxies, which indicates the presence of previously unobserved hot, ionized gas (see [link] (c)).

Theoretical yearnings for closure

Is the universe open or closed? That is, will the universe expand forever or will it stop, perhaps to contract? This, until recently, was a question of whether there is enough gravitation to stop the expansion of the universe. In the past few years, it has become a question of the combination of gravitation and what is called the cosmological constant    . The cosmological constant was invented by Einstein to prohibit the expansion or contraction of the universe. At the time he developed general relativity, Einstein considered that an illogical possibility. The cosmological constant was discarded after Hubble discovered the expansion, but has been re-invoked in recent years.

Questions & Answers

a rare fraction and adjacent contraction of a sound wave are travelling in air and are separated by distance of 15cm, taken that velocity sound is 330ms what is the frequency?
Jennifer Reply
u need answer
yes pls
Is ans 64/3
what is speed and velocity
Yaseer Reply
speed is scaler quantity and velocity is vector quantity speed has only magnitude and velocity has magnitude+direction both speed and velocity has same unit m/s
I am finding it hard to draw the velocity time graph, please can anyone assist me to know how to draw it, please?
explain and draw how to measure length when using ruler, micrometer screw gauge and vernnier calliper
gift Reply
Calculate the average velocity in time interval 6sec to 12sec and determine the instantaneous velocity
Lekiisi Reply
the force is not constant in this case of tow car collide for short period of time ..why is the force is not constant?
Abel Reply
calculate the average velocity in time interval 6sec to 12sec ad determine the instantaneous velocity
meaning of the term si units
Chali Reply
what what causes electric current
what what causes electric current
Systeme international unitq@1qa@aaq
Correct one international system of units.
electric dynamo
Electric dynamo is the sources of electric magnetic forces which utilize electromagnetic induction.
A stone is dropped down a well, if it take 5 seconds to reach the water, how dip is the well
Mollamin Reply
125m dip
an aircraft at as steady velocity of 70m/so eastwards at a height of 800me drops a package of supplies .a, how long will it take for the package to rich the ground? b, how fast will it be going as it lands?
Ng Reply
what is hypothesis theory law
physics is the science of measurement
Jide Reply
What is physics
Victor Reply
what is physics
Good question! Physics is the study of the nature world . Does this help?
physics is the study of matter in relations to energy.
physics is the science of measurements
physics is a science concern with nature and properties of matter and energy
what is a parallelogram law of motion?
describe how you would find the area of an irregular shaped body?
physics is the study of natural phenomena at their most fundamental level
Definition for physics
Adesola Reply
It deal with matter and relation to energy
physics is the Study of matter in relation to energy.
physics is a natural science that study matter its behaviour and relation to energy.
physic tells us more about quantities and measurement also
life as we know it that can be measured and calculated
what is a reference frame
Chukwu Reply
what is anatomy in relation to physics
Mubarak Reply
how does half life exist
Humble Reply
 The amount of time it takes a radioactive isotope to decay into a stable isotope is different for each radioactive isotope, and is characterized by its “half-life”. An isotope's half-life is the amount of time it takes for half the number of atoms of that isotope to decay to another isotope.
what is the difference between Mass and weight
mass is constant while weight varies. unit of mass is kg, unit of weight is newton
how can a coin float in water and what principle governs it
Mercy Reply
in my opinion that work of surface tension but restrictions on coin is that coin do not break surface energy of molecules but some days before scientists prove that's another types of force
which force hold floating coins together thats my confusion

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