# 7.6 Conservation of energy  (Page 4/12)

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Another example of energy conversion occurs in a solar cell. Sunlight impinging on a solar cell (see [link] ) produces electricity, which in turn can be used to run an electric motor. Energy is converted from the primary source of solar energy into electrical energy and then into mechanical energy.

Energy of various objects and phenomena
Object/phenomenon Energy in joules
Big Bang ${\text{10}}^{\text{68}}$
Energy released in a supernova ${\text{10}}^{\text{44}}$
Fusion of all the hydrogen in Earth’s oceans ${\text{10}}^{\text{34}}$
Annual world energy use $4×{\text{10}}^{\text{20}}$
Large fusion bomb (9 megaton) $3\text{.}8×{\text{10}}^{\text{16}}$
1 kg hydrogen (fusion to helium) $6\text{.}4×{\text{10}}^{\text{14}}$
1 kg uranium (nuclear fission) $8\text{.}0×{\text{10}}^{\text{13}}$
Hiroshima-size fission bomb (10 kiloton) $4\text{.}2×{\text{10}}^{\text{13}}$
90,000-ton aircraft carrier at 30 knots $1\text{.}1×{\text{10}}^{\text{10}}$
1 barrel crude oil $5\text{.}9×{\text{10}}^{9}$
1 ton TNT $4\text{.}2×{\text{10}}^{9}$
1 gallon of gasoline $1\text{.}2×{\text{10}}^{8}$
Daily home electricity use (developed countries) $7×{\text{10}}^{7}$
Daily adult food intake (recommended) $1\text{.}2×{\text{10}}^{7}$
1000-kg car at 90 km/h $3\text{.}1×{\text{10}}^{5}$
1 g fat (9.3 kcal) $3\text{.}9×{\text{10}}^{4}$
ATP hydrolysis reaction $3\text{.}2×{\text{10}}^{4}$
1 g carbohydrate (4.1 kcal) $1\text{.}7×{\text{10}}^{4}$
1 g protein (4.1 kcal) $1\text{.}7×{\text{10}}^{4}$
Tennis ball at 100 km/h $\text{22}$
Mosquito $\left({10}^{–2}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}g at 0.5 m/s\right)$ $1\text{.}3×{\text{10}}^{-6}$
Single electron in a TV tube beam $4\text{.}0×{\text{10}}^{-\text{15}}$
Energy to break one DNA strand ${\text{10}}^{-\text{19}}$

## Efficiency

Even though energy is conserved in an energy conversion process, the output of useful energy or work will be less than the energy input. The efficiency     $\text{Eff}$ of an energy conversion process is defined as

$\text{Efficiency}\left(\text{Eff}\right)=\frac{\text{useful energy or work output}}{\text{total energy input}}=\frac{{W}_{\text{out}}}{{E}_{\text{in}}}\text{.}$

[link] lists some efficiencies of mechanical devices and human activities. In a coal-fired power plant, for example, about 40% of the chemical energy in the coal becomes useful electrical energy. The other 60% transforms into other (perhaps less useful) energy forms, such as thermal energy, which is then released to the environment through combustion gases and cooling towers.

Efficiency of the human body and mechanical devices
Activity/device Efficiency (%) Representative values
Cycling and climbing 20
Swimming, surface 2
Swimming, submerged 4
Shoveling 3
Weightlifting 9
Steam engine 17
Gasoline engine 30
Diesel engine 35
Nuclear power plant 35
Coal power plant 42
Electric motor 98
Compact fluorescent light 20
Gas heater (residential) 90
Solar cell 10

## Phet explorations: masses and springs

A realistic mass and spring laboratory. Hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. You can even slow time. Transport the lab to different planets. A chart shows the kinetic, potential, and thermal energies for each spring.

## Test prep for ap courses

You do 30 J of work to load a toy dart gun. However, the dart is 10 cm long and feels a frictional force of 10 N while going through the dart gun’s barrel. What is the kinetic energy of the fired dart?

1. 30 J
2. 29 J
3. 28 J
4. 27 J

(c)

When an object is lifted by a crane, it begins and ends its motion at rest. The same is true of an object pushed across a rough surface. Explain why this happens. What are the differences between these systems?

A spherica, concave shaving mirror has a radius of curvature of 32 cm .what is the magnification of a persons face. when it is 12cm to the left of the vertex of the mirror
A weather vane is some sort of directional arrow parallel to the ground that may rotate freely in a horizontal plane. A typical weather vane has a large cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction the arrow is pointing, like a “One Way” street sign. The purpose of the weather vane is to indicate the direction of the wind. As wind blows pa
If a prism is fully imersed in water then the ray of light will normally dispersed or their is any difference?
the same behavior thru the prism out or in water bud abbot
Ju
If this will experimented with a hollow(vaccum) prism in water then what will be result ?
Anurag
What was the previous far point of a patient who had laser correction that reduced the power of her eye by 7.00 D, producing a normal distant vision power of 50.0 D for her?
What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
Jaydie
What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
Jaydie
A young woman with normal distant vision has a 10.0% ability to accommodate (that is, increase) the power of her eyes. What is the closest object she can see clearly?
Jaydie
29/20 ? maybes
Ju
In what ways does physics affect the society both positively or negatively
how can I read physics...am finding it difficult to understand...pls help
try to read several books on phy don't just rely one. some authors explain better than other.
Ju
And don't forget to check out YouTube videos on the subject. Videos offer a different visual way to learn easier.
Ju
hope that helps
Ju
I have a exam on 12 february
what is velocity
Jiti
the speed of something in a given direction.
Ju
what is a magnitude in physics
Propose a force standard different from the example of a stretched spring discussed in the text. Your standard must be capable of producing the same force repeatedly.
What is meant by dielectric charge?
what happens to the size of charge if the dielectric is changed?
omega= omega not +alpha t derivation
u have to derivate it respected to time ...and as w is the angular velocity uu will relace it with "thita × time""
Abrar
do to be peaceful with any body
the angle subtended at the center of sphere of radius r in steradian is equal to 4 pi how?
if for diatonic gas Cv =5R/2 then gamma is equal to 7/5 how?
Saeed
define variable velocity