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Conceptual questions

Radiotherapy is more likely to be used to treat cancer in elderly patients than in young ones. Explain why. Why is radiotherapy used to treat young people at all?

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Problems&Exercises

A beam of 168-MeV nitrogen nuclei is used for cancer therapy. If this beam is directed onto a 0.200-kg tumor and gives it a 2.00-Sv dose, how many nitrogen nuclei were stopped? (Use an RBE of 20 for heavy ions.)

7.44 × 10 8 size 12{7 "." "44" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } } {}

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(a) If the average molecular mass of compounds in food is 50.0 g, how many molecules are there in 1.00 kg of food? (b) How many ion pairs are created in 1.00 kg of food, if it is exposed to 1000 Sv and it takes 32.0 eV to create an ion pair? (c) Find the ratio of ion pairs to molecules. (d) If these ion pairs recombine into a distribution of 2000 new compounds, how many parts per billion is each?

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Calculate the dose in Sv to the chest of a patient given an x-ray under the following conditions. The x-ray beam intensity is 1.50 W /m 2 , the area of the chest exposed is 0.0750 m 2 , 35.0% of the x-rays are absorbed in 20.0 kg of tissue, and the exposure time is 0.250 s.

4.92 × 10 –4 Sv

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(a) A cancer patient is exposed to γ rays from a 5000-Ci 60 Co transillumination unit for 32.0 s. The γ rays are collimated in such a manner that only 1.00% of them strike the patient. Of those, 20.0% are absorbed in a tumor having a mass of 1.50 kg. What is the dose in rem to the tumor, if the average γ energy per decay is 1.25 MeV? None of the β size 12{β} {} s from the decay reach the patient. (b) Is the dose consistent with stated therapeutic doses?

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What is the mass of 60 Co in a cancer therapy transillumination unit containing 5.00 kCi of 60 Co ?

4.43 g

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Large amounts of 65 Zn are produced in copper exposed to accelerator beams. While machining contaminated copper, a physicist ingests 50.0 μCi of 65 Zn . Each 65 Zn decay emits an average γ -ray energy of 0.550 MeV, 40.0% of which is absorbed in the scientist’s 75.0-kg body. What dose in mSv is caused by this in one day?

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Naturally occurring 40 K is listed as responsible for 16 mrem/y of background radiation. Calculate the mass of 40 K that must be inside the 55-kg body of a woman to produce this dose. Each 40 K decay emits a 1.32-MeV β , and 50% of the energy is absorbed inside the body.

0.010 g

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(a) Background radiation due to 226 Ra averages only 0.01 mSv/y, but it can range upward depending on where a person lives. Find the mass of 226 Ra in the 80.0-kg body of a man who receives a dose of 2.50-mSv/y from it, noting that each 226 Ra decay emits a 4.80-MeV α particle. You may neglect dose due to daughters and assume a constant amount, evenly distributed due to balanced ingestion and bodily elimination. (b) Is it surprising that such a small mass could cause a measurable radiation dose? Explain.

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The annual radiation dose from 14 C in our bodies is 0.01 mSv/y. Each 14 C decay emits a β averaging 0.0750 MeV. Taking the fraction of 14 C to be 1.3 × 10 –12 N of normal 12 C , and assuming the body is 13% carbon, estimate the fraction of the decay energy absorbed. (The rest escapes, exposing those close to you.)

95%

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If everyone in Australia received an extra 0.05 mSv per year of radiation, what would be the increase in the number of cancer deaths per year? (Assume that time had elapsed for the effects to become apparent.) Assume that there are 200 × 10 4 size 12{"200" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 4} } } {} deaths per Sv of radiation per year. What percent of the actual number of cancer deaths recorded is this?

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Questions & Answers

what is thermodynamics
wana Reply
thermodynamic is a branch of physics that teaches on the relationship about heat and anyother form of energy
Emmanuel
if l cary box and stop is ther any work
Tamirat Reply
no that because u have moved no distance. for work to be performed a force needs to be applied and a distance needs to be moved
Emmanuel
Different between fundamental unit and derived unit
Alimi Reply
fundamental unit are independent quantities that do not depend on any other unit while derived unit are quantities that depend on two or more units for it definition
Emmanuel
what is nuclear fission
Sadik Reply
hello
Shawty
are you there
Shawty
miss your absence here...
Shawty
what is a vector
Temitayo Reply
vectors are quantities that have numerical value or magnitude and direction.
Muhammad
what is regelation
Oladele
vector is any quantity that has magnitude and direction
Emmanuel
Physics is a physical science that deals with the study of matter in relation to energy
Divine Reply
Hi
Jimoh
hello
Salaudeen
hello
Sadik
Yes
Maxamuud
hi everyone
Muhammad
what is physics
Rhema Reply
physics is a physical science that deals with the study of matter in relation to energy
Osayuwa
a15kg powerexerted by the foresafter 3second
Firdos Reply
what is displacement
Xolani Reply
movement in a direction
Jason
hello
Hosea
Hey
Smart
haider
Explain why magnetic damping might not be effective on an object made of several thin conducting layers separated by insulation? can someone please explain this i need it for my final exam
anas Reply
Hi
saeid
hi
Yimam
Hi
Jimoh
An object made of several thin conducting layers separated by insulation may not be affected by magnetic damping because the eddy current produced in each layer due to induction will be very small and the opposing magnetic flux produced by the eddy currents will be very small
Muhammad
What is thê principle behind movement of thê taps control
Oluwakayode Reply
while
Hosea
what is atomic mass
thomas Reply
this is the mass of an atom of an element in ratio with the mass of carbon-atom
Chukwuka
show me how to get the accuracies of the values of the resistors for the two circuits i.e for series and parallel sides
Jesuovie Reply
Explain why it is difficult to have an ideal machine in real life situations.
Isaac Reply
tell me
Promise
what's the s . i unit for couple?
Promise
its s.i unit is Nm
Covenant
Force×perpendicular distance N×m=Nm
Oluwakayode
İt iş diffucult to have idêal machine because of FRİCTİON definitely reduce thê efficiency
Oluwakayode
It is difficult to have an ideal machine in real life situation because in ideal machines all the input energy should be converted to output energy . But , some part of energy is always lost in overcoming friction and input energy is always greater than output energy . Hence , no machine is ideal.
Muhammad
if the classica theory of specific heat is valid,what would be the thermal energy of one kmol of copper at the debye temperature (for copper is 340k)
Zaharadeen Reply
Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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