# 34.4 Dark matter and closure  (Page 4/16)

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Neutrino oscillations may also explain the low number of observed solar neutrinos. Detectors for observing solar neutrinos are specifically designed to detect electron neutrinos ${\nu }_{e}$ produced in huge numbers by fusion in the Sun. A large fraction of electron neutrinos ${\nu }_{e}$ may be changing flavor to muon neutrinos ${v}_{\mu }$ on their way out of the Sun, possibly enhanced by specific interactions, reducing the flux of electron neutrinos to observed levels. There is also a discrepancy in observations of neutrinos produced in cosmic ray showers. While these showers of radiation produced by extremely energetic cosmic rays should contain twice as many ${v}_{\mu }$ s as ${\nu }_{e}$ s, their numbers are nearly equal. This may be explained by neutrino oscillations from muon flavor to electron flavor. Massive neutrinos are a particularly appealing possibility for explaining dark matter, since their existence is consistent with a large body of known information and explains more than dark matter. The question is not settled at this writing.

The most radical proposal to explain dark matter is that it consists of previously unknown leptons (sometimes obtusely referred to as non-baryonic matter). These are called weakly interacting massive particles , or WIMPs    , and would also be chargeless, thus interacting negligibly with normal matter, except through gravitation. One proposed group of WIMPs would have masses several orders of magnitude greater than nucleons and are sometimes called neutralinos    . Others are called axions     and would have masses about ${\text{10}}^{-\text{10}}$ that of an electron mass. Both neutralinos and axions would be gravitationally attached to galaxies, but because they are chargeless and only feel the weak force, they would be in a halo rather than interact and coalesce into spirals, and so on, like normal matter (see [link] ).

Some particle theorists have built WIMPs into their unified force theories and into the inflationary scenario of the evolution of the universe so popular today. These particles would have been produced in just the correct numbers to make the universe flat, shortly after the Big Bang. The proposal is radical in the sense that it invokes entirely new forms of matter, in fact two entirely new forms, in order to explain dark matter and other phenomena. WIMPs have the extra burden of automatically being very difficult to observe directly. This is somewhat analogous to quark confinement, which guarantees that quarks are there, but they can never be seen directly. One of the primary goals of the LHC at CERN, however, is to produce and detect WIMPs. At any rate, before WIMPs are accepted as the best explanation, all other possibilities utilizing known phenomena will have to be shown inferior. Should that occur, we will be in the unanticipated position of admitting that, to date, all we know is only 10% of what exists. A far cry from the days when people firmly believed themselves to be not only the center of the universe, but also the reason for its existence.

## Section summary

• Dark matter is non-luminous matter detected in and around galaxies and galactic clusters.
• It may be 10 times the mass of the luminous matter in the universe, and its amount may determine whether the universe is open or closed (expands forever or eventually stops).
• The determining factor is the critical density of the universe and the cosmological constant, a theoretical construct intimately related to the expansion and closure of the universe.
• The critical density ρ c is the density needed to just halt universal expansion. It is estimated to be approximately 10 –26 kg/m 3 .
• An open universe is negatively curved, a closed universe is positively curved, whereas a universe with exactly the critical density is flat.
• Dark matter’s composition is a major mystery, but it may be due to the suspected mass of neutrinos or a completely unknown type of leptonic matter.
• If neutrinos have mass, they will change families, a process known as neutrino oscillations, for which there is growing evidence.

## Conceptual questions

Discuss the possibility that star velocities at the edges of galaxies being greater than expected is due to unknown properties of gravity rather than to the existence of dark matter. Would this mean, for example, that gravity is greater or smaller than expected at large distances? Are there other tests that could be made of gravity at large distances, such as observing the motions of neighboring galaxies?

How does relativistic time dilation prohibit neutrino oscillations if they are massless?

If neutrino oscillations do occur, will they violate conservation of the various lepton family numbers ( ${L}_{e}$ , ${L}_{\mu }$ , and ${L}_{\tau }$ )? Will neutrino oscillations violate conservation of the total number of leptons?

Lacking direct evidence of WIMPs as dark matter, why must we eliminate all other possible explanations based on the known forms of matter before we invoke their existence?

## Problems exercises

If the dark matter in the Milky Way were composed entirely of MACHOs (evidence shows it is not), approximately how many would there have to be? Assume the average mass of a MACHO is 1/1000 that of the Sun, and that dark matter has a mass 10 times that of the luminous Milky Way galaxy with its ${\text{10}}^{\text{11}}$ stars of average mass 1.5 times the Sun’s mass.

$1\text{.}5×{\text{10}}^{\text{15}}$

The critical mass density needed to just halt the expansion of the universe is approximately ${\text{10}}^{-\text{26}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}/{\text{m}}^{3}$ .

(a) Convert this to $\text{eV}/{c}^{2}\cdot {\text{m}}^{3}$ .

(b) Find the number of neutrinos per cubic meter needed to close the universe if their average mass is $7\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{eV}/{c}^{2}$ and they have negligible kinetic energies.

Assume the average density of the universe is 0.1 of the critical density needed for closure. What is the average number of protons per cubic meter, assuming the universe is composed mostly of hydrogen?

$0\text{.}6{m}^{-3}$

To get an idea of how empty deep space is on the average, perform the following calculations:

(a) Find the volume our Sun would occupy if it had an average density equal to the critical density of ${\text{10}}^{-\text{26}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}/{\text{m}}^{3}$ thought necessary to halt the expansion of the universe.

(b) Find the radius of a sphere of this volume in light years.

(c) What would this radius be if the density were that of luminous matter, which is approximately $5%\text{}$ that of the critical density?

(d) Compare the radius found in part (c) with the 4-ly average separation of stars in the arms of the Milky Way.

Calculate the work done by an 85.0-kg man who pushes a crate 4.00 m up along a ramp that makes an angle of 20.0º20.0º with the horizontal. (See [link] .) He exerts a force of 500 N on the crate parallel to the ramp and moves at a constant speed. Be certain to include the work he does on the crate an
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what is distance of A to B of the stations and what is the time taken to reach B from A
BELLO
the information provided is not enough
aliyu
Hmmmm maybe the question is logical
yusuf
where are the parameters for calculation
HENRY
there is enough information to calculate an AVERAGE acceleration
Kwok
mistake, there is enough information to calculate an average velocity
Kwok
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Abel
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Abel
wha are the types of radioactivity ?
what are the types of radioactivity
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what is static friction
It is the opposite of kinetic friction
Mark
static fiction is friction between two surfaces in contact an none of sliding over on another, while Kinetic friction is friction between sliding surfaces in contact.
MINDERIUM
I don't get it,if it's static then there will be no friction.
author
It means that static friction is that friction that most be overcome before a body can move
kingsley
static friction is a force that keeps an object from moving, and it's the opposite of kinetic friction.
author
It is a force a body must overcome in order for the body to move.
Eboh
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Eboh
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force is something which is responsible for the object to change its position
MINDERIUM
more technically it is the product of mass of an object and Acceleration produced in it
MINDERIUM
wave is disturbance in any medium
iqra
energy is distributed in any medium through particles of medium.
iqra
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we have to first figure out .... wats a particle accelerator first
Teh
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The resistive force of surface.
iqra
Who can tutor me on simple harmonic motion
on both a string and peldulum?
Anya
spring*
Anya
Yea
yusuf
Do you have a chit-chat contact
yusuf
I dont have social media but i do have an email?
Anya
Which is
yusuf
Where are you chatting from
yusuf
I don't understand the basics of this group
Jimmy
teach him SHM init
Anya
Simple harmonic motion
yusuf
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Marisa
how many subject is in physics
the write question should be " How many Topics are in O- Level Physics, or other branches of physics.
effiom
how many topic are in physics
Praise
Praise what level are you
yusuf
If u are doing a levels in your first year you do AS topics therefore you do 5 big topic i.e particles radiation, waves and optics, mechanics,materials, electricity. After that you do A level topics like Specific Harmonic motion circular motion astrophysics depends really
Anya
Yeah basics of physics prin8
yusuf
Heat nd Co for a level
yusuf
yh I need someone to explain something im tryna solve . I'll send the question if u down for it
a ripple tank experiment a vibrating plane is used to generate wrinkles in the water .if the distance between two successive point is 3.5cm and the wave travel a distance of 31.5cm find the frequency of the vibration
Tamdy
hallow
Boniface
Boniface
the range of objects and phenomena studied in physics is
Boniface