<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
  • Define fundamental particle.
  • Describe quark and antiquark.
  • List the flavors of quark.
  • Outline the quark composition of hadrons.
  • Determine quantum numbers from quark composition.

Quarks have been mentioned at various points in this text as fundamental building blocks and members of the exclusive club of truly elementary particles. Note that an elementary or fundamental particle    has no substructure (it is not made of other particles) and has no finite size other than its wavelength. This does not mean that fundamental particles are stable—some decay, while others do not. Keep in mind that all leptons seem to be fundamental, whereas no hadrons are fundamental. There is strong evidence that quarks are the fundamental building blocks of hadrons as seen in [link] . Quarks are the second group of fundamental particles (leptons are the first). The third and perhaps final group of fundamental particles is the carrier particles for the four basic forces. Leptons, quarks, and carrier particles may be all there is. In this module we will discuss the quark substructure of hadrons and its relationship to forces as well as indicate some remaining questions and problems.

The figure shows four spheres that are labeled proton, neutron, positive pion, and negative pion. The proton sphere contains a blue up quark with spin up, a green down quark with spin down, and a red up quark with spin up. Below the figure are two equations. The upper equation is labeled spin and reads one half plus one half minus one half equals one half, and the lower equation is labeled charge and reads plus two thirds plus two thirds minus one third equals one. The neutron sphere contains a green up quark with spin down, a blue down quark with spin up, and a red down quark with spin up. The corresponding spin equation reads minus one half plus one half plus one half equals one half, and the charge equation reads plus two thirds minus one third minus one third equals zero. The positive pion sphere contains a red up quark with spin up and an anti red anti down quark with spin down. The corresponding spin equation reads plus one half minus one half equals zero, and the charge equation reads plus two thirds plus one third equals plus one. The negative pion sphere contains a green anti up quark with spin up and an anti green down quark with spin down. The corresponding spin equation reads plus one half minus one half equals zero, and the charge equation reads minus two thirds minus one third equals minus one.
All baryons, such as the proton and neutron shown here, are composed of three quarks. All mesons, such as the pions shown here, are composed of a quark-antiquark pair. Arrows represent the spins of the quarks, which, as we shall see, are also colored. The colors are such that they need to add to white for any possible combination of quarks.

Conception of quarks

Quarks were first proposed independently by American physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1963. Their quaint name was taken by Gell-Mann from a James Joyce novel—Gell-Mann was also largely responsible for the concept and name of strangeness. (Whimsical names are common in particle physics, reflecting the personalities of modern physicists.) Originally, three quark types—or flavors    —were proposed to account for the then-known mesons and baryons. These quark flavors are named up    ( u ), down    ( d ), and strange    ( s ). All quarks have half-integral spin and are thus fermions. All mesons have integral spin while all baryons have half-integral spin. Therefore, mesons should be made up of an even number of quarks while baryons need to be made up of an odd number of quarks. [link] shows the quark substructure of the proton, neutron, and two pions. The most radical proposal by Gell-Mann and Zweig is the fractional charges of quarks, which are ± 2 3 q e size 12{ +- left ( { {2} over {3} } right )q rSub { size 8{e} } } {} and 1 3 q e size 12{ left ( { {1} over {3} } right )q rSub { size 8{e} } } {} , whereas all directly observed particles have charges that are integral multiples of q e size 12{q rSub { size 8{e} } } {} . Note that the fractional value of the quark does not violate the fact that the e is the smallest unit of charge that is observed, because a free quark cannot exist. [link] lists characteristics of the six quark flavors that are now thought to exist. Discoveries made since 1963 have required extra quark flavors, which are divided into three families quite analogous to leptons.

How does it work?

To understand how these quark substructures work, let us specifically examine the proton, neutron, and the two pions pictured in [link] before moving on to more general considerations. First, the proton p is composed of the three quarks uud , so that its total charge is + 2 3 q e + 2 3 q e 1 3 q e = q e size 12{+ left ( { {2} over {3} } right )q rSub { size 8{e} } + left ( { {2} over {3} } right )q rSub { size 8{e} } - left ( { {1} over {3} } right )q rSub { size 8{e} } =q rSub { size 8{e} } } {} , as expected. With the spins aligned as in the figure, the proton’s intrinsic spin is + 1 2 + 1 2 1 2 = 1 2 size 12{+ left ( { {1} over {2} } right )+ left ( { {1} over {2} } right ) - left ( { {1} over {2} } right )= left ( { {1} over {2} } right )} {} , also as expected. Note that the spins of the up quarks are aligned, so that they would be in the same state except that they have different colors (another quantum number to be elaborated upon a little later). Quarks obey the Pauli exclusion principle. Similar comments apply to the neutron n , which is composed of the three quarks udd . Note also that the neutron is made of charges that add to zero but move internally, producing its well-known magnetic moment. When the neutron β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} decays, it does so by changing the flavor of one of its quarks. Writing neutron β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} decay in terms of quarks,

Questions & Answers

Why is the sky blue...?
Star Reply
It's filtered light from the 2 forms of radiation emitted from the sun. It's mainly filtered UV rays. There's a theory titled Scatter Theory that covers this topic
Mike
A heating coil of resistance 30π is connected to a 240v supply for 5min to boil a quantity of water in a vessel of heat capacity 200jk. If the initial temperature of water is 20°c and it specific heat capacity is 4200jkgk calculate the mass of water in a vessel
fasawe Reply
A thin equi convex lens is placed on a horizontal plane mirror and a pin held 20 cm vertically above the lens concise in position with its own image the space between the undersurface of d lens and the mirror is filled with water (refractive index =1•33)and then to concise with d image d pin has to
Azummiri Reply
Be raised until its distance from d lens is 27cm find d radius of curvature
Azummiri
what happens when a nuclear bomb and atom bomb bomb explode add the same time near each other
FlAsH Reply
A monkey throws a coconut straight upwards from a coconut tree with a velocity of 10 ms-1. The coconut tree is 30 m high. Calculate the maximum height of the coconut from the top of the coconut tree? Can someone answer my question
Fatinizzah Reply
v2 =u2 - 2gh 02 =10x10 - 2x9.8xh h = 100 ÷ 19.6 answer = 30 - h.
Ramonyai
why is the north side is always referring to n side of magnetic
sam Reply
who is a nurse
Chilekwa Reply
A nurse is a person who takes care of the sick
Bukola
a nurse is also like an assistant to the doctor
Gadjawa
explain me wheatstone bridge
Malik Reply
good app
samuel
Wheatstone bridge is an instrument used to measure an unknown electrical resistance by balancing two legs of a bridge circuit, one leg of which includes the unknown component.
MUHD
Rockwell Software is Rockwell Automation’s "Retro Encabulator". Now, basically the only new principle involved is that instead of power being generated by the relative motion of conductors and fluxes, it’s produced by the modial interaction of magneto-reluctance and capacitive diractance. The origin
Chip
what refractive index
Adjah Reply
write a comprehensive note on primary colours
Harrison Reply
relationship between refractive index, angle of minimum deviation and angle of prism
Harrison
Who knows the formula for binding energy,and what each variable or notation stands for?
Agina Reply
1. A black thermocouple measures the temperature in the chamber with black walls.if the air around the thermocouple is 200 C,the walls are at 1000 C,and the heat transfer constant is 15.compute the temperature gradient
Tikiso Reply
what is the relationship between G and g
Olaiya Reply
G is the u. constant, as g stands for grav, accelerate at a discreet point
Mark
Is that all about it?
Olaiya
pls explain in details
Olaiya
G is a universal constant
Mark
g stands for the gravitational acceleration point. hope this helps you.
Mark
balloon TD is at a gravitational acceleration at a specific point
Mark
I'm sorry this doesn't take dictation very well.
Mark
Can anyone explain the Hooke's law of elasticity?
Olaiya Reply
extension of a spring is proportional to the force applied so long as the force applied does not exceed the springs capacity according to my textbook
Amber
does this help?
Amber
Yes, thanks
Olaiya
so any solid can be compressed how compressed is dependent upon how much force is applied F=deltaL
Amber
sorry, the equation is F=KdeltaL delta is the triangle symbol and L is length so the change in length is proportional to amount of Force applied I believe that is what Hookes law means. anyone catch any mistakes here please correct me :)
Amber
I think it is used only for solids and not liquids, isn't it?
Olaiya
basically as long as you dont exceed the elastic limit the object should return to it original form but if you exceed this limit the object will not return to original shape as it will break
Amber
Thanks for the explanation
Olaiya
yh, liquids don't apply here, that should be viscosity
Chiamaka
hope it helps 😅
Amber
also, an object doesnt have to break necessarily, but it will have a new form :)
Amber
Yes
Olaiya
yeah, I think it is for solids but maybe there is a variation for liquids? that I am not sure of
Amber
ok
Olaiya
good luck!
Amber
Same
Olaiya
aplease i need a help on spcific latent heat of vibrations
Bilgate
specific latent heat of vaporisation
Bilgate
how many kilometers makes a mile
Margaret Reply
about 1.6 kilometres.
Faizyab
near about 1.67 kilometers
Aakash
equal to 1.609344 kilometers.
MUHD

Get the best College physics course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'College physics' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask