# 6.6 Satellites and kepler’s laws: an argument for simplicity  (Page 2/5)

 Page 2 / 5

Kepler’s Third Law

The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets about the Sun is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the Sun. In equation form, this is

where $T$ is the period (time for one orbit) and $r$ is the average radius. This equation is valid only for comparing two small masses orbiting the same large one. Most importantly, this is a descriptive equation only, giving no information as to the cause of the equality.

Note again that while, for historical reasons, Kepler’s laws are stated for planets orbiting the Sun, they are actually valid for all bodies satisfying the two previously stated conditions.

## Find the time for one orbit of an earth satellite

Given that the Moon orbits Earth each 27.3 d and that it is an average distance of $3.84×{\text{10}}^{8}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$ from the center of Earth, calculate the period of an artificial satellite orbiting at an average altitude of 1500 km above Earth’s surface.

Strategy

The period, or time for one orbit, is related to the radius of the orbit by Kepler’s third law, given in mathematical form in . Let us use the subscript 1 for the Moon and the subscript 2 for the satellite. We are asked to find ${T}_{2}$ . The given information tells us that the orbital radius of the Moon is ${r}_{1}=3\text{.}\text{84}×{\text{10}}^{8}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$ , and that the period of the Moon is ${T}_{1}=\text{27.3 d}$ . The height of the artificial satellite above Earth’s surface is given, and so we must add the radius of Earth (6380 km) to get ${r}_{2}=\left(\text{1500}+\text{6380}\right)\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{km}=\text{7880}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{km}$ . Now all quantities are known, and so ${T}_{2}$ can be found.

Solution

Kepler’s third law is

To solve for ${T}_{2}$ , we cross-multiply and take the square root, yielding

${T}_{2}={T}_{1}{\left(\frac{{r}_{2}}{{r}_{1}}\right)}^{3/2}\text{.}$

Substituting known values yields

$\begin{array}{lll}{T}_{2}& =& \text{27.3 d}×\frac{\text{24.0 h}}{\text{d}}×{\left(\frac{\text{7880 km}}{3.84×{\text{10}}^{5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{km}}\right)}^{3/2}\\ & =& \text{1.93 h.}\end{array}$

Discussion This is a reasonable period for a satellite in a fairly low orbit. It is interesting that any satellite at this altitude will orbit in the same amount of time. This fact is related to the condition that the satellite’s mass is small compared with that of Earth.

People immediately search for deeper meaning when broadly applicable laws, like Kepler’s, are discovered. It was Newton who took the next giant step when he proposed the law of universal gravitation. While Kepler was able to discover what was happening, Newton discovered that gravitational force was the cause.

## Derivation of kepler’s third law for circular orbits

We shall derive Kepler’s third law, starting with Newton’s laws of motion and his universal law of gravitation. The point is to demonstrate that the force of gravity is the cause for Kepler’s laws (although we will only derive the third one).

Let us consider a circular orbit of a small mass $m$ around a large mass $M$ , satisfying the two conditions stated at the beginning of this section. Gravity supplies the centripetal force to mass $m$ . Starting with Newton’s second law applied to circular motion,

What does mean ohms law imply
what is matter
Anything that occupies space
Kevin
Any thing that has weight and occupies space
Victoria
Anything which we can feel by any of our 5 sense organs
Suraj
Right
Roben
thanks
Suraj
what is a sulphate
Alo
Alo
the time rate of increase in velocity is called
acceleration
Emma
What is uniform velocity
Victoria
Greetings,users of that wonderful app.
how to solve pressure?
how do we calculate weight and eara eg an elefant that weight 2000kg has four fits or legs search of surface eara is 0.1m2(1metre square) incontact with the ground=10m2(g =10m2)
Cruz
P=F/A
Mira
can someone derive the formula a little bit deeper?
Bern
what is coplanar force?
what is accuracy and precision
How does a current follow?
follow?
akif
which one dc or ac current.
akif
how does a current following?
Vineeta
?
akif
AC current
Vineeta
AC current follows due to changing electric field and magnetic field.
akif
Abubakar
ok bro thanks
akif
flows
Abubakar
but i wanted to understand him/her in his own language
akif
but I think the statement is written in English not any other language
Abubakar
my mean that in which form he/she written this,will understand better in this form, i write.
akif
ok
Abubakar
ok thanks bro. my mistake
Vineeta
u are welcome
Abubakar
what is a semiconductor
substances having lower forbidden gap between valence band and conduction band
akif
what is a conductor?
Vineeta
replace lower by higher only
akif
convert 56°c to kelvin
Abubakar
How does a current follow?
Vineeta
A semiconductor is any material whose conduction lies between that of a conductor and an insulator.
AKOWUAH
what is Atom? what is molecules? what is ions?
What is a molecule
Is a unit of a compound that has two or more atoms either of the same or different atoms
Justice
A molecule is the smallest indivisible unit of a compound, Just like the atom is the smallest indivisible unit of an element.
Rachel
what is a molecule?
Vineeta
what is a vector
A quantity that has both a magnitude AND a direction. E.g velocity, acceleration, force are all vector quantities. Hope this helps :)
deage
what is the difference between velocity and relative velocity?
Mackson
Velocity is the rate of change of displacement with time. Relative velocity on the other hand is the velocity observed by an observer with respect to a reference point.
Chuks
what do u understand by Ultraviolet catastrophe?
Rufai
A certain freely falling object, released from rest, requires 1.5seconds to travel the last 30metres before it hits the ground. (a) Find the velocity of the object when it is 30metres above the ground.
Mackson
A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction
Rufus
the velocity Is 20m/s-2
Rufus
derivation of electric potential
V = Er = (kq/r^2)×r V = kq/r Where V: electric potential.
Chuks
what is the difference between simple motion and simple harmonic motion ?
syed
hi
Peace
hi
Rufus
hi
Chip
simple harmonic motion is a motion of tro and fro of simple pendulum and the likes while simple motion is a linear motion on a straight line.
Muinat
a body acceleration uniform from rest a 6m/s -2 for 8sec and decelerate uniformly to rest in the next 5sec,the magnitude of the deceleration is ?
The wording not very clear kindly
Moses
6
Leo
9.6m/s2
Jolly
the magnitude of deceleration =-9.8ms-2. first find the final velocity using the known acceleration and time. next use the calculated velocity to find the size of deceleration.
Mackson
wrong
Peace
-3.4m/s-2
Justice
Hi
Abj
Firstly, calculate final velocity of the body and then the deceleration. The final ans is,-9.6ms-2
Muinat
8x6= 48m/-2 use v=u + at 48÷5=9.6
Lawrence
can i define motion like this motion can be define as the continuous change of an object or position
Any object in motion will come to rest after a time duration. Different objects may cover equal distance in different time duration. Therefore, motion is defined as a change in position depending on time.
Chuks