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Carbon-zinc dry cells (sometimes referred to as non-alkaline cells) have an emf of 1.54 V, and they are produced as single cells or in various combinations to form other voltages. (a) How many 1.54-V cells are needed to make the common 9-V battery used in many small electronic devices? (b) What is the actual emf of the approximately 9-V battery? (c) Discuss how internal resistance in the series connection of cells will affect the terminal voltage of this approximately 9-V battery.

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What is the output voltage of a 3.0000-V lithium cell in a digital wristwatch that draws 0.300 mA, if the cell’s internal resistance is 2 . 00 Ω size 12{2 "." "00" %OMEGA } {} ?

2.9994 V

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(a) What is the terminal voltage of a large 1.54-V carbon-zinc dry cell used in a physics lab to supply 2.00 A to a circuit, if the cell’s internal resistance is 0 . 100 Ω size 12{0 "." "100" %OMEGA } {} ? (b) How much electrical power does the cell produce? (c) What power goes to its load?

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What is the internal resistance of an automobile battery that has an emf of 12.0 V and a terminal voltage of 15.0 V while a current of 8.00 A is charging it?

0 . 375 Ω size 12{0 "." "375" %OMEGA } {}

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(a) Find the terminal voltage of a 12.0-V motorcycle battery having a 0 . 600-Ω size 12{0 "." "600"- %OMEGA } {} internal resistance, if it is being charged by a current of 10.0 A. (b) What is the output voltage of the battery charger?

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A car battery with a 12-V emf and an internal resistance of 0 . 050 Ω size 12{0 "." "050" %OMEGA } {} is being charged with a current of 60 A. Note that in this process the battery is being charged. (a) What is the potential difference across its terminals? (b) At what rate is thermal energy being dissipated in the battery? (c) At what rate is electric energy being converted to chemical energy? (d) What are the answers to (a) and (b) when the battery is used to supply 60 A to the starter motor?

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The hot resistance of a flashlight bulb is 2 . 30 Ω size 12{2 "." "30" %OMEGA } {} , and it is run by a 1.58-V alkaline cell having a 0 . 100-Ω size 12{0 "." "100"- %OMEGA } {} internal resistance. (a) What current flows? (b) Calculate the power supplied to the bulb using I 2 R bulb size 12{I rSup { size 8{2} } R rSub { size 8{"bulb"} } } {} . (c) Is this power the same as calculated using V 2 R bulb size 12{ { {V rSup { size 8{2} } } over {R rSub { size 8{"bulb"} } } } } {} ?

(a) 0.658 A

(b) 0.997 W

(c) 0.997 W; yes

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The label on a portable radio recommends the use of rechargeable nickel-cadmium cells (nicads), although they have a 1.25-V emf while alkaline cells have a 1.58-V emf. The radio has a 3 . 20-Ω size 12{3 "." "20"- %OMEGA } {} resistance. (a) Draw a circuit diagram of the radio and its batteries. Now, calculate the power delivered to the radio. (b) When using Nicad cells each having an internal resistance of 0 . 0400 Ω size 12{0 "." "0400" %OMEGA } {} . (c) When using alkaline cells each having an internal resistance of 0 . 200 Ω size 12{0 "." "200" %OMEGA } {} . (d) Does this difference seem significant, considering that the radio’s effective resistance is lowered when its volume is turned up?

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An automobile starter motor has an equivalent resistance of 0 . 0500 Ω size 12{0 "." "0500" %OMEGA } {} and is supplied by a 12.0-V battery with a 0 . 0100-Ω size 12{0 "." "0100"- %OMEGA } {} internal resistance. (a) What is the current to the motor? (b) What voltage is applied to it? (c) What power is supplied to the motor? (d) Repeat these calculations for when the battery connections are corroded and add 0 . 0900 Ω size 12{0 "." "0900" %OMEGA } {} to the circuit. (Significant problems are caused by even small amounts of unwanted resistance in low-voltage, high-current applications.)

(a) 200 A

(b) 10.0 V

(c) 2.00 kW

(d) 0 . 1000 Ω ; 80 . 0 A, 4 . 0 V, 320 W size 12{0 "." "1000" %OMEGA ;" 80" "." "0 A, 4" "." "0 V, 320 W"} {}

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A child’s electronic toy is supplied by three 1.58-V alkaline cells having internal resistances of 0 . 0200 Ω size 12{0 "." "0200" %OMEGA } {} in series with a 1.53-V carbon-zinc dry cell having a 0 . 100-Ω size 12{0 "." "100"- %OMEGA } {} internal resistance. The load resistance is 10 . 0 Ω size 12{"10" "." 0 %OMEGA } {} . (a) Draw a circuit diagram of the toy and its batteries. (b) What current flows? (c) How much power is supplied to the load? (d) What is the internal resistance of the dry cell if it goes bad, resulting in only 0.500 W being supplied to the load?

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(a) What is the internal resistance of a voltage source if its terminal voltage drops by 2.00 V when the current supplied increases by 5.00 A? (b) Can the emf of the voltage source be found with the information supplied?

(a) 0 . 400 Ω size 12{0 "." "400" %OMEGA } {}

(b) No, there is only one independent equation, so only r size 12{r} {} can be found.

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A person with body resistance between his hands of 10 . 0 k Ω size 12{"10" "." 0" k" %OMEGA } {} accidentally grasps the terminals of a 20.0-kV power supply. (Do NOT do this!) (a) Draw a circuit diagram to represent the situation. (b) If the internal resistance of the power supply is 2000 Ω size 12{"2000" %OMEGA } {} , what is the current through his body? (c) What is the power dissipated in his body? (d) If the power supply is to be made safe by increasing its internal resistance, what should the internal resistance be for the maximum current in this situation to be 1.00 mA or less? (e) Will this modification compromise the effectiveness of the power supply for driving low-resistance devices? Explain your reasoning.

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Electric fish generate current with biological cells called electroplaques, which are physiological emf devices. The electroplaques in the South American eel are arranged in 140 rows, each row stretching horizontally along the body and each containing 5000 electroplaques. Each electroplaque has an emf of 0.15 V and internal resistance of 0 . 25 Ω size 12{0 "." "25" %OMEGA } {} . If the water surrounding the fish has resistance of 800 Ω size 12{"800" %OMEGA } {} , how much current can the eel produce in water from near its head to near its tail?

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Integrated Concepts

A 12.0-V emf automobile battery has a terminal voltage of 16.0 V when being charged by a current of 10.0 A. (a) What is the battery’s internal resistance? (b) What power is dissipated inside the battery? (c) At what rate (in º C/min size 12{°"C/min"} {} ) will its temperature increase if its mass is 20.0 kg and it has a specific heat of 0 . 300 kcal/kg º C size 12{0 "." "300"" kcal/kg" cdot °C} {} , assuming no heat escapes?

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Unreasonable Results

A 1.58-V alkaline cell with a 0 . 200-Ω size 12{0 "." "200"- %OMEGA } {} internal resistance is supplying 8.50 A to a load. (a) What is its terminal voltage? (b) What is the value of the load resistance? (c) What is unreasonable about these results? (d) Which assumptions are unreasonable or inconsistent?

(a) –0.120 V

(b) - 1 . 41 × 10 2 Ω size 12{ +- 1 "." "41"´"10" rSup { size 8{-2} } %OMEGA } {}

(c) Negative terminal voltage; negative load resistance.

(d) The assumption that such a cell could provide 8.50 A is inconsistent with its internal resistance.

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Unreasonable Results

(a) What is the internal resistance of a 1.54-V dry cell that supplies 1.00 W of power to a 15 . 0-Ω size 12{"15" "." 0- %OMEGA } {} bulb? (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) Which assumptions are unreasonable or inconsistent?

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Questions & Answers

what happens when an unstoppable force collides an immovable object?
Mavis Reply
a radioactive nuclei of mass 6.0g has a half life of 8days. calculate during which 5.25g of the nuclei would have decay
ADEMOLA Reply
Calculate the Newton's the weight of a 2.5 Kilogram of melon. What is its weight in pound?
Rialyn Reply
calculate the tension of the cable when a buoy with 0.5m and mass of 20kg
Iga Reply
what is displacement
Nyamza Reply
it's the time rate of change of distance
Mollamin
distance in a given direction is diplacement
Musa
Distance in a spacified direction
Gift
you shouldn't say distance,displacement and distance are two different things .distance can be lopped curved but displacement is always in a straight line so you can't use distance to define it. displacement is the change of position in a specified direction.
Joshua
Well stayed josh👍
Gift
thank you gift.
Joshua
well explained
Mary
what is the meaning of physics
Alausa Reply
to study objects in motion and how they interact or take part in the natural phenomenon of the universe.
Phill
an object that has a small mass and an object has a large mase have the same momentum which has high kinetic energy
Faith Reply
The with smaller mass
Gift
how
Faith
Since you said they have the same momentum.. So meaning that there is more like an inverse proportionality in the quantities used to find the momentum. We are told that the the is a larger mass and a smaller mass., so we can conclude that the smaller mass had higher velocity as compared to other one
Gift
Mathamaticaly correct
megavado
Mathmaticaly correct :)
megavado
I have proven it by using my own values
Gift
Larger mass=4g Smaller mass=2g Momentum of both=8 Meaning V for L =2 and V for S=4 Now find there kinetic energies using the data presented
Gift
grateful soul...thanks alot
Faith
Welcome
Gift
2 stones are thrown vertically upward from the ground, one with 3 times the initial speed of the other. If the faster stone takes 10 s to return to the ground, how long will it take the slower stone to return? If the slower stone reaches a maximum height of H, how high will the faster stone go
Julliene Reply
30s
Gift
how can i calculate it's height
Julliene
is speed the same as velocity
Faith Reply
no
Nebil
in a question i ought to find the momentum but was given just mass and speed
Faith
just multiply mass and speed then you have the magnitude of momentem
Nebil
Yes
Gift
Consider speed to be velocity
Gift
it worked our . . thanks
Faith
Distinguish between semi conductor and extrinsic conductors
Okame Reply
Suppose that a grandfather clock is running slowly; that is, the time it takes to complete each cycle is longer than it should be. Should you (@) shorten or (b) lengthen the pendulam to make the clock keep attain the preferred time?
Aj Reply
I think you shorten am not sure
Uche
shorten it, since that is practice able using the simple pendulum as experiment
Silvia
it'll always give the results needed no need to adjust the length, it is always measured by the starting time and ending time by the clock
Paul
it's not in relation to other clocks
Paul
wat is d formular for newton's third principle
Silvia
okay
Silvia
shorten the pendulum string because the difference in length affects the time of oscillation.if short , the time taken will be adjusted.but if long ,the time taken will be twice the previous cycle.
FADILAT
discuss under damped
Prince Reply
resistance of thermometer in relation to temperature
Ifeanyi Reply
how
Bernard
that resistance is not measured yet, it may be probably in the next generation of scientists
Paul
Is fundamental quantities under physical quantities?
Igwe Reply
please I didn't not understand the concept of the physical therapy
John Reply
physiotherapy - it's a practice of exercising for healthy living.
Paul
what chapter is this?
Anderson
this is not in this book, it's from other experiences.
Paul
am new in the group
Daniel
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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