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An evacuated tube uses an accelerating voltage of 40 kV to accelerate electrons to hit a copper plate and produce x rays. Non-relativistically, what would be the maximum speed of these electrons?

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A bare helium nucleus has two positive charges and a mass of 6 . 64 × 10 –27 kg . size 12{6 "." "64"×"10" rSup { size 8{-"27"} } " kg" "." } {} (a) Calculate its kinetic energy in joules at 2.00% of the speed of light. (b) What is this in electron volts? (c) What voltage would be needed to obtain this energy?

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Integrated Concepts

Singly charged gas ions are accelerated from rest through a voltage of 13.0 V. At what temperature will the average kinetic energy of gas molecules be the same as that given these ions?

1 . 00 × 10 5 K size 12{1 "." "00"×"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " K"} {}

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Integrated Concepts

The temperature near the center of the Sun is thought to be 15 million degrees Celsius 1.5 × 10 7 ºC size 12{ left (3 "." 0×"10" rSup { size 8{7} } °C right )} {} . Through what voltage must a singly charged ion be accelerated to have the same energy as the average kinetic energy of ions at this temperature?

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Integrated Concepts

(a) What is the average power output of a heart defibrillator that dissipates 400 J of energy in 10.0 ms? (b) Considering the high-power output, why doesn’t the defibrillator produce serious burns?

(a) 4 × 10 4 W size 12{4×"10" rSup { size 8{4} } " W"} {}

(b) A defibrillator does not cause serious burns because the skin conducts electricity well at high voltages, like those used in defibrillators. The gel used aids in the transfer of energy to the body, and the skin doesn’t absorb the energy, but rather lets it pass through to the heart.

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Integrated Concepts

A lightning bolt strikes a tree, moving 20.0 C of charge through a potential difference of 1.00 × 10 2 MV . (a) What energy was dissipated? (b) What mass of water could be raised from 15ºC size 12{"15"°C} {} to the boiling point and then boiled by this energy? (c) Discuss the damage that could be caused to the tree by the expansion of the boiling steam.

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Integrated Concepts

A 12.0 V battery-operated bottle warmer heats 50.0 g of glass, 2.50 × 10 2 g of baby formula, and 2.00 × 10 2 g of aluminum from 20 . 0ºC to 90.0ºC size 12{"90" "." 0°C} {} . (a) How much charge is moved by the battery? (b) How many electrons per second flow if it takes 5.00 min to warm the formula? (Hint: Assume that the specific heat of baby formula is about the same as the specific heat of water.)

(a) 7 . 40 × 10 3 C size 12{7 "." "40"×"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " C"} {}

(b) 1 . 54 × 10 20 electrons per second size 12{1 "." "54"×"10" rSup { size 8{"20"} } " electrons"} {}

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Integrated Concepts

A battery-operated car utilizes a 12.0 V system. Find the charge the batteries must be able to move in order to accelerate the 750 kg car from rest to 25.0 m/s, make it climb a 2.00 × 10 2 m high hill, and then cause it to travel at a constant 25.0 m/s by exerting a 5.00 × 10 2 N force for an hour.

3.89 × 10 6 C

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Integrated Concepts

Fusion probability is greatly enhanced when appropriate nuclei are brought close together, but mutual Coulomb repulsion must be overcome. This can be done using the kinetic energy of high-temperature gas ions or by accelerating the nuclei toward one another. (a) Calculate the potential energy of two singly charged nuclei separated by 1 . 00 × 10 –12 m size 12{1 "." "00"×"10" rSup { size 8{-"12"} } " m"} {} by finding the voltage of one at that distance and multiplying by the charge of the other. (b) At what temperature will atoms of a gas have an average kinetic energy equal to this needed electrical potential energy?

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Unreasonable Results

(a) Find the voltage near a 10.0 cm diameter metal sphere that has 8.00 C of excess positive charge on it. (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) Which assumptions are responsible?

(a) 1.44 × 10 12 V

(b) This voltage is very high. A 10.0 cm diameter sphere could never maintain this voltage; it would discharge.

(c) An 8.00 C charge is more charge than can reasonably be accumulated on a sphere of that size.

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Construct Your Own Problem

Consider a battery used to supply energy to a cellular phone. Construct a problem in which you determine the energy that must be supplied by the battery, and then calculate the amount of charge it must be able to move in order to supply this energy. Among the things to be considered are the energy needs and battery voltage. You may need to look ahead to interpret manufacturer’s battery ratings in ampere-hours as energy in joules.

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Questions & Answers

what is torque
Deepak Reply
The turning effect of force is called torque.
Uzair
what there factors affect the surface tension of a liquid
Promise Reply
formula for impedance
muyiwa Reply
ehat is central forces
Nita Reply
what is distance?
Jonathan Reply
What does mean ohms law imply
Victoria Reply
ohms law state that the electricity passing through a metallic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across its end
muyiwa
what is matter
folajin Reply
Anything that occupies space
Kevin
Any thing that has weight and occupies space
Victoria
Anything which we can feel by any of our 5 sense organs
Suraj
Right
Roben
thanks
Suraj
what is a sulphate
Alo
any answers
Alo
the time rate of increase in velocity is called
Blessing Reply
acceleration
Emma
What is uniform velocity
Victoria
Greetings,users of that wonderful app.
Frank Reply
how to solve pressure?
Cruz Reply
how do we calculate weight and eara eg an elefant that weight 2000kg has four fits or legs search of surface eara is 0.1m2(1metre square) incontact with the ground=10m2(g =10m2)
Cruz
P=F/A
Mira
can someone derive the formula a little bit deeper?
Bern
what is coplanar force?
OLADITI Reply
forces acting and lying on d same plane
Promise
what is accuracy and precision
Peace Reply
How does a current follow?
Vineeta Reply
follow?
akif
which one dc or ac current.
akif
how does a current following?
Vineeta
?
akif
AC current
Vineeta
AC current follows due to changing electric field and magnetic field.
akif
you guys are just saying follow is flow not follow please
Abubakar
ok bro thanks
akif
flows
Abubakar
but i wanted to understand him/her in his own language
akif
but I think the statement is written in English not any other language
Abubakar
my mean that in which form he/she written this,will understand better in this form, i write.
akif
ok
Abubakar
ok thanks bro. my mistake
Vineeta
u are welcome
Abubakar
what is a semiconductor
Vineeta Reply
substances having lower forbidden gap between valence band and conduction band
akif
what is a conductor?
Vineeta
replace lower by higher only
akif
convert 56°c to kelvin
Abubakar
How does a current follow?
Vineeta
A semiconductor is any material whose conduction lies between that of a conductor and an insulator.
AKOWUAH
what is Atom? what is molecules? what is ions?
Abubakar Reply
atoms are the smallest unit of an element which is capable of behaving as a single unit
Promise
a molecule is d smallest unit of a substances capable of independent existence and can also retain the chemical proper ties of that substance
Promise
an ion is referred to as freely moving charged particles
Promise
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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