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  • Examine heat transfer.
  • Calculate final temperature from heat transfer.

So far we have discussed temperature change due to heat transfer. No temperature change occurs from heat transfer if ice melts and becomes liquid water (i.e., during a phase change). For example, consider water dripping from icicles melting on a roof warmed by the Sun. Conversely, water freezes in an ice tray cooled by lower-temperature surroundings.

The given figure shows a vertically downward, knife-shaped ice piece, with water droplets sparkling on its surface.
Heat from the air transfers to the ice causing it to melt. (credit: Mike Brand)

Energy is required to melt a solid because the cohesive bonds between the molecules in the solid must be broken apart such that, in the liquid, the molecules can move around at comparable kinetic energies; thus, there is no rise in temperature. Similarly, energy is needed to vaporize a liquid, because molecules in a liquid interact with each other via attractive forces. There is no temperature change until a phase change is complete. The temperature of a cup of soda initially at C stays at C until all the ice has melted. Conversely, energy is released during freezing and condensation, usually in the form of thermal energy. Work is done by cohesive forces when molecules are brought together. The corresponding energy must be given off (dissipated) to allow them to stay together [link] .

The energy involved in a phase change depends on two major factors: the number and strength of bonds or force pairs. The number of bonds is proportional to the number of molecules and thus to the mass of the sample. The strength of forces depends on the type of molecules. The heat Q size 12{Q} {} required to change the phase of a sample of mass m size 12{m} {} is given by

Q = mL f  (melting/freezing), size 12{Q= ital "mL" rSub { size 8{f} } } {}
Q = mL v  (vaporization/condensation), size 12{Q= ital "mL" rSub { size 8{v} } } {}

where the latent heat of fusion, L f size 12{L rSub { size 8{f} } } {} , and latent heat of vaporization, L v size 12{L rSub { size 8{v} } } {} , are material constants that are determined experimentally. See ( [link] ).

Figure a shows a four by four square lattice object labeled solid. The lattice is made of four rows of red spheres, with each row containing four spheres. The spheres are attached together horizontally and vertically by springs, defining vacant square spaces between the springs. A short arrow points radially outward from each sphere. The arrows on the different spheres point in different directions but are the same length, and one of them terminates at a dashed circle that is labeled limits of motion. To the right of this object are shown two curved arrows. The upper curved arrow points rightward and is labeled “energy input” and “melt.” The lower arrow points leftward and is labeled “energy output” and “freeze.” To the right of the curved arrows is a drawing labeled liquid. This drawing contains nine red spheres arranged randomly, with a curved arrow emanating from each sphere. The arrows are of different lengths and point in different directions.Figure b shows a drawing labeled liquid that is essentially the same as that of figure a. To the right of this drawing are shown two curved arrows. The upper curved arrow points rightward and is labeled “energy input” and “boil.” The lower arrow points leftward and is labeled “energy output” and “condense.” To the right of the curved arrows is another drawing of randomly arranged red spheres that is labeled gas. This drawing contains eight red spheres and each sphere has a straight or a curved arrow emanating from it. Compared to the drawing to the left that is labeled liquid, these arrows are longer and the red spheres are more widely spaced.
(a) Energy is required to partially overcome the attractive forces between molecules in a solid to form a liquid. That same energy must be removed for freezing to take place. (b) Molecules are separated by large distances when going from liquid to vapor, requiring significant energy to overcome molecular attraction. The same energy must be removed for condensation to take place. There is no temperature change until a phase change is complete.

Latent heat is measured in units of J/kg. Both L f size 12{L rSub { size 8{f} } } {} and L v size 12{L rSub { size 8{v} } } {} depend on the substance, particularly on the strength of its molecular forces as noted earlier. L f size 12{L rSub { size 8{f} } } {} and L v size 12{L rSub { size 8{v} } } {} are collectively called latent heat coefficients . They are latent , or hidden, because in phase changes, energy enters or leaves a system without causing a temperature change in the system; so, in effect, the energy is hidden. [link] lists representative values of L f size 12{L rSub { size 8{f} } } {} and L v size 12{L rSub { size 8{v} } } {} , together with melting and boiling points.

The table shows that significant amounts of energy are involved in phase changes. Let us look, for example, at how much energy is needed to melt a kilogram of ice at C to produce a kilogram of water at 0 ° C . Using the equation for a change in temperature and the value for water from [link] , we find that Q = mL f = ( 1 . 0 kg ) ( 334 kJ/kg ) = 334 kJ is the energy to melt a kilogram of ice. This is a lot of energy as it represents the same amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of liquid water from C to 79 . C . Even more energy is required to vaporize water; it would take 2256 kJ to change 1 kg of liquid water at the normal boiling point ( 100º C size 12{"100"°C} {} at atmospheric pressure) to steam (water vapor). This example shows that the energy for a phase change is enormous compared to energy associated with temperature changes without a phase change.

Questions & Answers

how to prove that Newton's law of universal gravitation F = GmM ______ R²
Kaka Reply
sir dose it apply to the human system
Olubukola Reply
prove that the centrimental force Fc= M1V² _________ r
Kaka Reply
prove that centripetal force Fc = MV² ______ r
Kaka
how lesers can transmit information
mitul Reply
griffts bridge derivative
Ganesh Reply
below me
please explain; when a glass rod is rubbed with silk, it becomes positive and the silk becomes negative- yet both attracts dust. does dust have third types of charge that is attracted to both positive and negative
Timothy Reply
what is a conductor
Timothy
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Timothy
below me
why below you
Timothy
no....I said below me ...... nothing below .....ok?
dust particles contains both positive and negative charge particles
Mbutene
corona charge can verify
Stephen
when pressure increases the temperature remain what?
Ibrahim Reply
what is frequency
Mbionyi Reply
define precision briefly
Sujitha Reply
CT scanners do not detect details smaller than about 0.5 mm. Is this limitation due to the wavelength of x rays? Explain.
MITHRA Reply
hope this helps
what's critical angle
Mahmud Reply
The Critical Angle Derivation So the critical angle is defined as the angle of incidence that provides an angle of refraction of 90-degrees. Make particular note that the critical angle is an angle of incidence value. For the water-air boundary, the critical angle is 48.6-degrees.
dude.....next time Google it
okay whatever
Chidalu
pls who can give the definition of relative density?
Temiloluwa
the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a standard, usually water for a liquid or solid, and air for a gas.
Chidalu
What is momentum
aliyu Reply
mass ×velocity
Chidalu
it is the product of mass ×velocity of an object
Chidalu
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Sean Reply
then you can edit your work anyway you want
Wat is the relationship between Instataneous velocity
Oyinlusi Reply
Instantaneous velocity is defined as the rate of change of position for a time interval which is almost equal to zero
Astronomy
The potential in a region between x= 0 and x = 6.00 m lis V= a+ bx, where a = 10.0 V and b = -7.00 V/m. Determine (a) the potential atx=0, 3.00 m, and 6.00 m and (b) the magnitude and direction of the electric ficld at x =0, 3.00 m, and 6.00 m.
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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