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The arterioles (small arteries) leading to an organ, constrict in order to decrease flow to the organ. To shut down an organ, blood flow is reduced naturally to 1.00% of its original value. By what factor did the radii of the arterioles constrict? Penguins do this when they stand on ice to reduce the blood flow to their feet.

0.316

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Angioplasty is a technique in which arteries partially blocked with plaque are dilated to increase blood flow. By what factor must the radius of an artery be increased in order to increase blood flow by a factor of 10?

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(a) Suppose a blood vessel’s radius is decreased to 90.0% of its original value by plaque deposits and the body compensates by increasing the pressure difference along the vessel to keep the flow rate constant. By what factor must the pressure difference increase? (b) If turbulence is created by the obstruction, what additional effect would it have on the flow rate?

(a) 1.52

(b) Turbulence will decrease the flow rate of the blood, which would require an even larger increase in the pressure difference, leading to higher blood pressure.

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A spherical particle falling at a terminal speed in a liquid must have the gravitational force balanced by the drag force and the buoyant force. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid, while the drag force is assumed to be given by Stokes Law, F s = 6 π r η v size 12{F rSub { size 8{s} } =6πrηv} {} . Show that the terminal speed is given by

v = 2 R 2 g 9 η ρ s ρ 1 , size 12{v= { {2R rSup { size 8{2} } g} over {9η} } left (ρ rSub { size 8{s} } - ρ rSub { size 8{1} } right )} {}

where R size 12{R} {} is the radius of the sphere, ρ s size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{s} } } {} is its density, and ρ 1 size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{1} } } {} is the density of the fluid and η size 12{η} {} the coefficient of viscosity.

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Using the equation of the previous problem, find the viscosity of motor oil in which a steel ball of radius 0.8 mm falls with a terminal speed of 4.32 cm/s. The densities of the ball and the oil are 7.86 and 0.88 g/mL, respectively.

225 mPa s size 12{"225"`"mPa" cdot s} {}
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A skydiver will reach a terminal velocity when the air drag equals their weight. For a skydiver with high speed and a large body, turbulence is a factor. The drag force then is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity. Taking the drag force to be F D = 1 2 ρ Av 2 size 12{F rSub { size 8{D} } = { { size 8{1} } over { size 8{2} } } ρ ital "Av" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} and setting this equal to the person’s weight, find the terminal speed for a person falling “spread eagle.” Find both a formula and a number for v t size 12{v rSub { size 8{t} } } {} , with assumptions as to size.

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A layer of oil 1.50 mm thick is placed between two microscope slides. Researchers find that a force of 5 . 50 × 10 4 N size 12{5 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 4} } `N} {} is required to glide one over the other at a speed of 1.00 cm/s when their contact area is 6 . 00 cm 2 size 12{6 "." "00"`"cm" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . What is the oil’s viscosity? What type of oil might it be?

0 . 138 Pa s, size 12{0 "." "138 Pa" cdot s} {}

or

Olive oil.

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(a) Verify that a 19.0% decrease in laminar flow through a tube is caused by a 5.00% decrease in radius, assuming that all other factors remain constant, as stated in the text. (b) What increase in flow is obtained from a 5.00% increase in radius, again assuming all other factors remain constant?

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[link] dealt with the flow of saline solution in an IV system. (a) Verify that a pressure of 1 . 62 × 10 4 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." "62" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} is created at a depth of 1.61 m in a saline solution, assuming its density to be that of sea water. (b) Calculate the new flow rate if the height of the saline solution is decreased to 1.50 m. (c) At what height would the direction of flow be reversed? (This reversal can be a problem when patients stand up.)

(a) 1 . 62 × 10 4 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." "62" times "10" rSup { size 8{"4 "} } "N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

(b) 0 . 111 cm 3 /s size 12{0 "." "111 cm" rSup { size 8{3} } "/s"} {}

(c)10.6 cm

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When physicians diagnose arterial blockages, they quote the reduction in flow rate. If the flow rate in an artery has been reduced to 10.0% of its normal value by a blood clot and the average pressure difference has increased by 20.0%, by what factor has the clot reduced the radius of the artery?

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During a marathon race, a runner’s blood flow increases to 10.0 times her resting rate. Her blood’s viscosity has dropped to 95.0% of its normal value, and the blood pressure difference across the circulatory system has increased by 50.0%. By what factor has the average radii of her blood vessels increased?

1.59

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Water supplied to a house by a water main has a pressure of 3 . 00 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{3 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} early on a summer day when neighborhood use is low. This pressure produces a flow of 20.0 L/min through a garden hose. Later in the day, pressure at the exit of the water main and entrance to the house drops, and a flow of only 8.00 L/min is obtained through the same hose. (a) What pressure is now being supplied to the house, assuming resistance is constant? (b) By what factor did the flow rate in the water main increase in order to cause this decrease in delivered pressure? The pressure at the entrance of the water main is 5 . 00 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{5 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , and the original flow rate was 200 L/min. (c) How many more users are there, assuming each would consume 20.0 L/min in the morning?

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An oil gusher shoots crude oil 25.0 m into the air through a pipe with a 0.100-m diameter. Neglecting air resistance but not the resistance of the pipe, and assuming laminar flow, calculate the gauge pressure at the entrance of the 50.0-m-long vertical pipe. Take the density of the oil to be 900 kg/m 3 size 12{"900"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} and its viscosity to be 1 . 00 ( N/m 2 ) s size 12{1 "." "00"` \( "N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } \) cdot s} {} (or 1.00 Pa s size 12{1 "." "00"`"Pa" cdot s} {} ). Note that you must take into account the pressure due to the 50.0-m column of oil in the pipe.

2 . 95 × 10 6 N/m 2 size 12{2 "." "21" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} (gauge pressure)

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Concrete is pumped from a cement mixer to the place it is being laid, instead of being carried in wheelbarrows. The flow rate is 200.0 L/min through a 50.0-m-long, 8.00-cm-diameter hose, and the pressure at the pump is 8 . 00 × 10 6 N/m 2 size 12{8 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . (a) Calculate the resistance of the hose. (b) What is the viscosity of the concrete, assuming the flow is laminar? (c) How much power is being supplied, assuming the point of use is at the same level as the pump? You may neglect the power supplied to increase the concrete’s velocity.

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Construct Your Own Problem

Consider a coronary artery constricted by arteriosclerosis. Construct a problem in which you calculate the amount by which the diameter of the artery is decreased, based on an assessment of the decrease in flow rate.

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Consider a river that spreads out in a delta region on its way to the sea. Construct a problem in which you calculate the average speed at which water moves in the delta region, based on the speed at which it was moving up river. Among the things to consider are the size and flow rate of the river before it spreads out and its size once it has spread out. You can construct the problem for the river spreading out into one large river or into multiple smaller rivers.

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Questions & Answers

how many subject is in physics
Adeshina Reply
yh I need someone to explain something im tryna solve . I'll send the question if u down for it
Tamdy Reply
a ripple tank experiment a vibrating plane is used to generate wrinkles in the water .if the distance between two successive point is 3.5cm and the wave travel a distance of 31.5cm find the frequency of the vibration
Tamdy
the range of objects and phenomena studied in physics is
Bethel Reply
what is Linear motion
Hamza Reply
straight line motion is called linear motion
then what
Amera
linear motion is a motion in a line, be it in a straight line or in a non straight line. It is the rate of change of distance.
Saeedul
Hi
aliyu
your are wrong Saeedul
Richard
Linear motion is a one-dimensional motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension
Jason
what is the formula to calculate wavelength of the incident light
David Reply
if a spring is is stiffness of 950nm-1 what work will be done in extending the spring by 60mmp
Hassan Reply
State the forms of energy
Samzy Reply
machanical
Ridwan
Word : Mechanical wave Definition : The waves, which need a material medium for their propagation, e.g., Sound waves. \n\nOther Definition: The waves, which need a material medium for their propagation, are called mechanical waves. Mechanical waves are also called elastic waves. Sound waves, water waves are examples of mechanical waves.t Definition: wave consisting of periodic motion of matter; e.g. sound wave or water wave as opposed to electromagnetic wave.h
Clement Reply
correct
Akinpelu
what is mechanical wave
Akinpelu Reply
a wave which require material medium for its propagation
syed
The S.I unit for power is what?
Samuel Reply
watt
Okoli
Am I correct
Okoli
it can be in kilowatt, megawatt and so
Femi
yes
Femi
correct
Jaheim
kW
Akinpelu
OK that's right
Samuel
SI.unit of power is.watt=j/c.but kw.and Mw are bigger.umots
syed
What is physics
aish Reply
study of matter and its nature
Akinpelu
The word physics comes from a Greek word Physicos which means Nature.The Knowledge of Nature. It is branch of science which deals with the matter and energy and interaction between them.
Uniform
why in circular motion, a tangential acceleration can change the magnitude of the velocity but not its direction
Syafiqah Reply
reasonable
Femi
because it is balanced by the inward acceleration otherwise known as centripetal acceleration
MUSTAPHA
What is a wave
Mutuma Reply
Tramsmission of energy through a media
Mateo
is the disturbance that carry materials as propagation from one medium to another
Akinpelu
mistakes thanks
Akinpelu
find the triple product of (A*B).C given that A =i + 4j, B=2i - 3j and C = i + k
Favour Reply
Difference between north seeking pole and south seeking pole
Stanley Reply
Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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