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The arterioles (small arteries) leading to an organ, constrict in order to decrease flow to the organ. To shut down an organ, blood flow is reduced naturally to 1.00% of its original value. By what factor did the radii of the arterioles constrict? Penguins do this when they stand on ice to reduce the blood flow to their feet.


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Angioplasty is a technique in which arteries partially blocked with plaque are dilated to increase blood flow. By what factor must the radius of an artery be increased in order to increase blood flow by a factor of 10?

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(a) Suppose a blood vessel’s radius is decreased to 90.0% of its original value by plaque deposits and the body compensates by increasing the pressure difference along the vessel to keep the flow rate constant. By what factor must the pressure difference increase? (b) If turbulence is created by the obstruction, what additional effect would it have on the flow rate?

(a) 1.52

(b) Turbulence will decrease the flow rate of the blood, which would require an even larger increase in the pressure difference, leading to higher blood pressure.

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A spherical particle falling at a terminal speed in a liquid must have the gravitational force balanced by the drag force and the buoyant force. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid, while the drag force is assumed to be given by Stokes Law, F s = 6 π r η v size 12{F rSub { size 8{s} } =6πrηv} {} . Show that the terminal speed is given by

v = 2 R 2 g 9 η ρ s ρ 1 , size 12{v= { {2R rSup { size 8{2} } g} over {9η} } left (ρ rSub { size 8{s} } - ρ rSub { size 8{1} } right )} {}

where R size 12{R} {} is the radius of the sphere, ρ s size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{s} } } {} is its density, and ρ 1 size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{1} } } {} is the density of the fluid and η size 12{η} {} the coefficient of viscosity.

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Using the equation of the previous problem, find the viscosity of motor oil in which a steel ball of radius 0.8 mm falls with a terminal speed of 4.32 cm/s. The densities of the ball and the oil are 7.86 and 0.88 g/mL, respectively.

225 mPa s size 12{"225"`"mPa" cdot s} {}
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A skydiver will reach a terminal velocity when the air drag equals their weight. For a skydiver with high speed and a large body, turbulence is a factor. The drag force then is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity. Taking the drag force to be F D = 1 2 ρ Av 2 size 12{F rSub { size 8{D} } = { { size 8{1} } over { size 8{2} } } ρ ital "Av" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} and setting this equal to the person’s weight, find the terminal speed for a person falling “spread eagle.” Find both a formula and a number for v t size 12{v rSub { size 8{t} } } {} , with assumptions as to size.

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A layer of oil 1.50 mm thick is placed between two microscope slides. Researchers find that a force of 5 . 50 × 10 4 N size 12{5 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 4} } `N} {} is required to glide one over the other at a speed of 1.00 cm/s when their contact area is 6 . 00 cm 2 size 12{6 "." "00"`"cm" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . What is the oil’s viscosity? What type of oil might it be?

0 . 138 Pa s, size 12{0 "." "138 Pa" cdot s} {}


Olive oil.

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(a) Verify that a 19.0% decrease in laminar flow through a tube is caused by a 5.00% decrease in radius, assuming that all other factors remain constant, as stated in the text. (b) What increase in flow is obtained from a 5.00% increase in radius, again assuming all other factors remain constant?

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[link] dealt with the flow of saline solution in an IV system. (a) Verify that a pressure of 1 . 62 × 10 4 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." "62" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} is created at a depth of 1.61 m in a saline solution, assuming its density to be that of sea water. (b) Calculate the new flow rate if the height of the saline solution is decreased to 1.50 m. (c) At what height would the direction of flow be reversed? (This reversal can be a problem when patients stand up.)

(a) 1 . 62 × 10 4 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." "62" times "10" rSup { size 8{"4 "} } "N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

(b) 0 . 111 cm 3 /s size 12{0 "." "111 cm" rSup { size 8{3} } "/s"} {}

(c)10.6 cm

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When physicians diagnose arterial blockages, they quote the reduction in flow rate. If the flow rate in an artery has been reduced to 10.0% of its normal value by a blood clot and the average pressure difference has increased by 20.0%, by what factor has the clot reduced the radius of the artery?

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During a marathon race, a runner’s blood flow increases to 10.0 times her resting rate. Her blood’s viscosity has dropped to 95.0% of its normal value, and the blood pressure difference across the circulatory system has increased by 50.0%. By what factor has the average radii of her blood vessels increased?


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Water supplied to a house by a water main has a pressure of 3 . 00 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{3 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} early on a summer day when neighborhood use is low. This pressure produces a flow of 20.0 L/min through a garden hose. Later in the day, pressure at the exit of the water main and entrance to the house drops, and a flow of only 8.00 L/min is obtained through the same hose. (a) What pressure is now being supplied to the house, assuming resistance is constant? (b) By what factor did the flow rate in the water main increase in order to cause this decrease in delivered pressure? The pressure at the entrance of the water main is 5 . 00 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{5 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , and the original flow rate was 200 L/min. (c) How many more users are there, assuming each would consume 20.0 L/min in the morning?

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An oil gusher shoots crude oil 25.0 m into the air through a pipe with a 0.100-m diameter. Neglecting air resistance but not the resistance of the pipe, and assuming laminar flow, calculate the gauge pressure at the entrance of the 50.0-m-long vertical pipe. Take the density of the oil to be 900 kg/m 3 size 12{"900"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} and its viscosity to be 1 . 00 ( N/m 2 ) s size 12{1 "." "00"` \( "N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } \) cdot s} {} (or 1.00 Pa s size 12{1 "." "00"`"Pa" cdot s} {} ). Note that you must take into account the pressure due to the 50.0-m column of oil in the pipe.

2 . 95 × 10 6 N/m 2 size 12{2 "." "21" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} (gauge pressure)

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Concrete is pumped from a cement mixer to the place it is being laid, instead of being carried in wheelbarrows. The flow rate is 200.0 L/min through a 50.0-m-long, 8.00-cm-diameter hose, and the pressure at the pump is 8 . 00 × 10 6 N/m 2 size 12{8 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . (a) Calculate the resistance of the hose. (b) What is the viscosity of the concrete, assuming the flow is laminar? (c) How much power is being supplied, assuming the point of use is at the same level as the pump? You may neglect the power supplied to increase the concrete’s velocity.

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Construct Your Own Problem

Consider a coronary artery constricted by arteriosclerosis. Construct a problem in which you calculate the amount by which the diameter of the artery is decreased, based on an assessment of the decrease in flow rate.

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Consider a river that spreads out in a delta region on its way to the sea. Construct a problem in which you calculate the average speed at which water moves in the delta region, based on the speed at which it was moving up river. Among the things to consider are the size and flow rate of the river before it spreads out and its size once it has spread out. You can construct the problem for the river spreading out into one large river or into multiple smaller rivers.

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Questions & Answers

a 50kg mass is placed on a frictionless piston fitted to a gas cylinder .If 149 kelvin of heat is supplied to the cylinder increasing the internal energy by 100 joules,determine the height through which the mass of the piston raise
Lawal Reply
what is thermodynamics
wana Reply
thermodynamic is a branch of physics that teaches on the relationship about heat and anyother form of energy
could you please help solve question on thermodynamics
if a mass of 149 of heat is supplied and there's an increase in internal energy of 100jouls,find the raise in height
if l cary box and stop is ther any work
Tamirat Reply
no that because u have moved no distance. for work to be performed a force needs to be applied and a distance needs to be moved
Different between fundamental unit and derived unit
Alimi Reply
fundamental unit are independent quantities that do not depend on any other unit while derived unit are quantities that depend on two or more units for it definition
what is nuclear fission
Sadik Reply
are you there
miss your absence here...
what is a vector
Temitayo Reply
vectors are quantities that have numerical value or magnitude and direction.
what is regelation
vector is any quantity that has magnitude and direction
Physics is a physical science that deals with the study of matter in relation to energy
Divine Reply
hi everyone
what is physics
Rhema Reply
physics is a physical science that deals with the study of matter in relation to energy
a15kg powerexerted by the foresafter 3second
Firdos Reply
what is displacement
Xolani Reply
movement in a direction
Explain why magnetic damping might not be effective on an object made of several thin conducting layers separated by insulation? can someone please explain this i need it for my final exam
anas Reply
An object made of several thin conducting layers separated by insulation may not be affected by magnetic damping because the eddy current produced in each layer due to induction will be very small and the opposing magnetic flux produced by the eddy currents will be very small
What is thê principle behind movement of thê taps control
Oluwakayode Reply
what is atomic mass
thomas Reply
this is the mass of an atom of an element in ratio with the mass of carbon-atom
show me how to get the accuracies of the values of the resistors for the two circuits i.e for series and parallel sides
Jesuovie Reply
Explain why it is difficult to have an ideal machine in real life situations.
Isaac Reply
tell me
what's the s . i unit for couple?
its s.i unit is Nm
Force×perpendicular distance N×m=Nm
İt iş diffucult to have idêal machine because of FRİCTİON definitely reduce thê efficiency
It is difficult to have an ideal machine in real life situation because in ideal machines all the input energy should be converted to output energy . But , some part of energy is always lost in overcoming friction and input energy is always greater than output energy . Hence , no machine is ideal.
Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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