# 12.4 Viscosity and laminar flow; poiseuille’s law  (Page 6/12)

 Page 6 / 12

## Section summary

• Laminar flow is characterized by smooth flow of the fluid in layers that do not mix.
• Turbulence is characterized by eddies and swirls that mix layers of fluid together.
• Fluid viscosity $\eta$ is due to friction within a fluid. Representative values are given in [link] . Viscosity has units of $\left({\text{N/m}}^{2}\right)\text{s}$ or $\text{Pa}\cdot \text{s}$ .
• Flow is proportional to pressure difference and inversely proportional to resistance:
$Q=\frac{{P}_{2}-{P}_{1}}{R}.$
• For laminar flow in a tube, Poiseuille’s law for resistance states that
$R=\frac{8\eta l}{{\mathrm{\pi r}}^{4}}.$
• Poiseuille’s law for flow in a tube is
$Q=\frac{\left({P}_{2}-{P}_{1}\right)\pi {r}^{4}}{8\eta l}.$
• The pressure drop caused by flow and resistance is given by
${P}_{2}-{P}_{1}=RQ.$

## Conceptual questions

Explain why the viscosity of a liquid decreases with temperature—that is, how might increased temperature reduce the effects of cohesive forces in a liquid? Also explain why the viscosity of a gas increases with temperature—that is, how does increased gas temperature create more collisions between atoms and molecules?

When paddling a canoe upstream, it is wisest to travel as near to the shore as possible. When canoeing downstream, it may be best to stay near the middle. Explain why.

Why does flow decrease in your shower when someone flushes the toilet?

Plumbing usually includes air-filled tubes near water faucets, as shown in [link] . Explain why they are needed and how they work.

## Problems&Exercises

(a) Calculate the retarding force due to the viscosity of the air layer between a cart and a level air track given the following information—air temperature is $\text{20º C}$ , the cart is moving at 0.400 m/s, its surface area is $2\text{.}\text{50}×{\text{10}}^{-2}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}$ , and the thickness of the air layer is $6.00×{\text{10}}^{-5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$ . (b) What is the ratio of this force to the weight of the 0.300-kg cart?

(a) $3\text{.}\text{02}×{\text{10}}^{-3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N}$

(b) $1\text{.}\text{03}×{\text{10}}^{-3}$

What force is needed to pull one microscope slide over another at a speed of 1.00 cm/s, if there is a 0.500-mm-thick layer of $\text{20º C}$ water between them and the contact area is $8.00\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{cm}}^{2}$ ?

A glucose solution being administered with an IV has a flow rate of $4\text{.}\text{00}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{cm}}^{3}\text{/min}$ . What will the new flow rate be if the glucose is replaced by whole blood having the same density but a viscosity 2.50 times that of the glucose? All other factors remain constant.

$1\text{.}{\text{60 cm}}^{3}\text{/min}$

The pressure drop along a length of artery is 100 Pa, the radius is 10 mm, and the flow is laminar. The average speed of the blood is 15 mm/s. (a) What is the net force on the blood in this section of artery? (b) What is the power expended maintaining the flow?

A small artery has a length of $1\text{.}1×{\text{10}}^{-3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$ and a radius of $2.5×{\text{10}}^{-5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$ . If the pressure drop across the artery is 1.3 kPa, what is the flow rate through the artery? (Assume that the temperature is $\text{37º C}$ .)

$8.7×{\text{10}}^{-\text{11}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{3}\text{/s}$

Fluid originally flows through a tube at a rate of $\text{100}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{cm}}^{3}\text{/s}$ . To illustrate the sensitivity of flow rate to various factors, calculate the new flow rate for the following changes with all other factors remaining the same as in the original conditions. (a) Pressure difference increases by a factor of 1.50. (b) A new fluid with 3.00 times greater viscosity is substituted. (c) The tube is replaced by one having 4.00 times the length. (d) Another tube is used with a radius 0.100 times the original. (e) Yet another tube is substituted with a radius 0.100 times the original and half the length, and the pressure difference is increased by a factor of 1.50.

what is Andromeda
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displacement per unit time
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the ratec of displacement over time
Jamie
the rate of displacement over time
Jamie
the rate of displacement over time
Jamie
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Pathani
up to tomorrow
Santosh
i need a description and derivation of kinetic theory of gas
Santosh
pls the sum of change in kinetic and potential energy is always what ?
Faith
i need a description and derivation of kinetic theory of gas
Santosh
did you need it right now
Pathani
A few grains of table salt were put in a cup of cold water kept at constant temperature and left undisturbed. eventually all the water tasted salty. this is due to?
Aunt Faith,please i am thinking the dissolution here from the word "solution" exposed the grains of salt to be dissolved in the water.Thankyou
Junior
Junior
Aunt Faith,please i am thinking the dissolution here from the word "solution" exposed the grains of salt to be dissolved in the water.Thankyou
Junior
it is either diffusion or osmosis. just confused
Faith
due to solvation....
Pathani
what is solvation pls
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water molecule surround the salt molecules . solute solute attraction break in the same manner solvent solvent interaction also break. as a result solute and solvent attraction took place.
Pathani
okay thanks
Faith
my pleasure
Pathani
what is solvation pls
Faith
water act as a solvent and salt act as solute
Pathani
okay thanks
Faith
its ok
Pathani
due to solvation....
Pathani
water molecule surround the salt molecules . solute solute attraction break in the same manner solvent solvent interaction also break. as a result solute and solvent attraction took place.
Pathani
what is magnetism
physical phenomena arising from force caused by magnets
is the phenomenon of attracting magnetic substance like iron, cobalt etc.
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what is heat
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saran
topic-- question
Salman
I know this is unrelated to physics, but how do I get the MCQs and essay to work. they arent clickable.
20cm3 of 1mol/dm3 solution of a monobasic acid HA and 20cm3 of 1mol/dm3 solution of NaOH are mixed in a calorimeter and a temperature rise of 274K is observed. If the heat capacity of the calorimeter is 160J/K, calculate the enthalpy of neutralization of the acid.(SHCw=4.2J/g/K) Formula. (ms*cs+C)*T
why is a body moving at a constant speed able to accelerate
20cm3 of 1mol/dm3 solution of a monobasic acid HA and 20cm3 of 1mol/dm3 solution of NaOH are mixed in a calorimeter and a temperature rise of 274K is observed. If the heat capacity of the calorimeter is 160J/K, calculate the enthalpy of neutralization of the acid.(SHCw=4.2J/g/K) Formula. (ms*cs+C)*T
Lilian
because it changes only direction and the speed is kept constant
Justice
Why is the sky blue...?
It's filtered light from the 2 forms of radiation emitted from the sun. It's mainly filtered UV rays. There's a theory titled Scatter Theory that covers this topic
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