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Decay modes are α size 12{α} {} , β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} , β + size 12{β rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} , electron capture (EC) and isomeric transition (IT). EC results in the same daughter nucleus as would β + size 12{β rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} decay. IT is a transition from a metastable excited state. Energies for β ± size 12{β rSup { size 8{ +- {}} } } {} decays are the maxima; average energies are roughly one-half the maxima.

Selected radioactive isotopes
Isotope t 1/2 DecayMode(s) Energy(MeV) Percent γ size 12{γ} {} -Ray Energy(MeV) Percent
3 H size 12{rSup { size 8{ 3 {}} }H} {} 12.33 y β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} ­ 0.0186 100%
14 C size 12{rSup { size 8{ 6 {}} }Li} {} 5730 y β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} 0.156 100%
13 N size 12{rSup { size 8{ 13 {}} }N} {} 9.96 min β + size 12{β rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} 1.20 100%
22 Na size 12{rSup { size 8{ 6 {}} }Li} {} 2.602 y β + size 12{β rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} 0.55 90% γ size 12{γ} {} 1.27 100%
32 P size 12{rSup { size 8{ 32 {}} }P} {} 14.28 d β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} 1.71 100%
35 S size 12{rSup { size 8{ 35 {}} }S} {} 87.4 d β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} ­ 0.167 100%
36 Cl size 12{rSup { size 8{ 36 {}} }Cl} {} 3 . 00 × 10 5 y size 12{3 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } y} {} β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} 0.710 100%
40 K size 12{rSup { size 8{ 40 {}} }K} {} 1 . 28 × 10 9 y size 12{1 "." "28" times "10" rSup { size 8{9} } y} {} β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} 1.31 89%
43 K size 12{rSup { size 8{ 43 {}} }K} {} 22.3 h β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} 0.827 87% γ s size 12{γs} {} 0.373 87%
0.618 87%
45 Ca size 12{rSup { size 8{ 6 {}} }Li} {} 165 d β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} ­ 0.257 100%
51 Cr size 12{rSup { size 8{ 51 {}} }Cr} {} 27.70 d EC γ size 12{γ} {} 0.320 10%
52 Mn size 12{rSup { size 8{ 52 {}} }Mn} {} 5.59d β + size 12{β rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} 3.69 28% γ s size 12{γs} {} 1.33 28%
1.43 28%
52 Fe size 12{rSup { size 8{ 52 {}} }Fe} {} 8.27 h β + size 12{β rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} 1.80 43% 0.169 43%
0.378 43%
59 Fe size 12{rSup { size 8{ 59 {}} }Fe} {} 44.6 d β s size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } s} {} 0.273 45% γ s size 12{γs} {} 1.10 57%
0.466 55% 1.29 43%
60 Co size 12{rSup { size 8{ 60 {}} }Co} {} 5.271 y β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} ­ 0.318 100% γ s size 12{γs} {} 1.17 100%
1.33 100%
65 Zn size 12{rSup { size 8{ 65 {}} }Zn} {} 244.1 d EC γ size 12{γ} {} 1.12 51%
67 Ga size 12{rSup { size 8{ 67 {}} }Ga} {} 78.3 h EC γ s size 12{γs} {} 0.0933 70%
0.185 35%
0.300 19%
others
75 Se size 12{rSup { size 8{ 75 {}} }Se} {} 118.5 d EC γ s size 12{γs} {} 0.121 20%
0.136 65%
0.265 68%
0.280 20%
others
86 Rb size 12{rSup { size 8{ 86 {}} }Rb} {} 18.8 d β s size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } s} {} 0.69 9% γ size 12{γ} {} 1.08 9%
1.77 91%
85 Sr size 12{rSup { size 8{ 85 {}} }Sr} {} 64.8 d EC γ size 12{γ} {} 0.514 100%
90 Sr size 12{rSup { size 8{ 90 {}} }Sr} {} 28.8 y β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} ­ 0.546 100%
90 Y size 12{rSup { size 8{ 90 {}} }Y} {} 64.1 h β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} ­ 2.28 100%
99m Tc size 12{rSup { size 8{ 99m {}} }Tc} {} 6.02 h IT γ size 12{γ} {} 0.142 100%
113m In size 12{rSup { size 8{ 113m {}} }In} {} 99.5 min IT γ size 12{γ} {} 0.392 100%
123 I size 12{rSup { size 8{ 123 {}} }I} {} 13.0 h EC γ size 12{γ} {} 0.159 ≈100% size 12{ approx "100"%} {}
131 I size 12{rSup { size 8{ 131 {}} }I} {} 8.040 d β s size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } s} {} 0.248 7% γ s size 12{γs} {} 0.364 85%
0.607 93% others
others
129 Cs size 12{rSup { size 8{ 129 {}} }Cs} {} 32.3 h EC γ s size 12{γs} {} 0.0400 35%
0.372 32%
0.411 25%
others
137 Cs size 12{rSup { size 8{ 137 {}} }Cs} {} 30.17 y β s size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } s} {} ­ 0.511 95% γ size 12{γ} {} 0.662 95%
1.17 5%
140 Ba size 12{rSup { size 8{ 140 {}} }Ba} {} 12.79 d β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} 1.035 ≈100% size 12{ approx "100"%} {} γ s size 12{γs} {} 0.030 25%
0.044 65%
0.537 24%
others
198 Au size 12{rSup { size 8{ 198 {}} }Au} {} 2.696 d β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} ­ 1.161 ≈100% size 12{ approx "100"%} {} γ size 12{γ} {} 0.412 ≈100% size 12{ approx "100"%} {}
197 Hg size 12{rSup { size 8{ 197 {}} }Hg} {} 64.1 h EC γ size 12{γ} {} 0.0733 100%
210 Po size 12{rSup { size 8{ 210 {}} }Po} {} 138.38 d α size 12{α} {} 5.41 100%
226 Ra size 12{rSup { size 8{ 226 {}} }Ra} {} 1 . 60 × 10 3 y size 12{1 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } y} {} α s size 12{αs} {} 4.68 5% γ size 12{γ} {} 0.186 100%
4.87 95%
235 U size 12{rSup { size 8{ 6 {}} }Li} {} 7 . 038 × 10 8 y size 12{7 "." "038" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } y} {} α size 12{α} {} 4.68 ≈100% size 12{ approx "100"%} {} γ s size 12{γs} {} numerous <0.400%
238 U size 12{rSup { size 8{ 6 {}} }Li} {} 4 . 468 × 10 9 y size 12{4 "." "468" times "10" rSup { size 8{9} } y} {} α s size 12{αs} {} 4.22 23% γ size 12{γ} {} 0.050 23%
4.27 77%
237 Np size 12{rSup { size 8{ 237 {}} }Np} {} 2 . 14 × 10 6 y size 12{2 "." "14" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } y} {} α s size 12{αs} {} numerous γ s size 12{γs} {} numerous <0.250%
4.96 (max.)
239 Pu size 12{rSup { size 8{ 239 {}} }Pu} {} 2 . 41 × 10 4 y size 12{2 "." "41" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } y} {} α s size 12{αs} {} 5.19 11% γ s size 12{γs} {} 7 . 5 × 10 5 size 12{7 "." 5 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 5} } } {} 73%
5.23 15% 0.013 15%
5.24 73% 0.052 10%
others
243 Am size 12{rSup { size 8{ 243 {}} }Am} {} 7 . 37 × 10 3 y size 12{7 "." "37" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } y} {} α s size 12{αs} {} Max. 5.44 γ s size 12{γs} {} 0.075
5.37 88% others
5.32 11%
others

Questions & Answers

a 50kg mass is placed on a frictionless piston fitted to a gas cylinder .If 149 kelvin of heat is supplied to the cylinder increasing the internal energy by 100 joules,determine the height through which the mass of the piston raise
Lawal Reply
what is thermodynamics
wana Reply
thermodynamic is a branch of physics that teaches on the relationship about heat and anyother form of energy
Emmanuel
could you please help solve question on thermodynamics
Lawal
if a mass of 149 of heat is supplied and there's an increase in internal energy of 100jouls,find the raise in height
Lawal
if l cary box and stop is ther any work
Tamirat Reply
no that because u have moved no distance. for work to be performed a force needs to be applied and a distance needs to be moved
Emmanuel
Different between fundamental unit and derived unit
Alimi Reply
fundamental unit are independent quantities that do not depend on any other unit while derived unit are quantities that depend on two or more units for it definition
Emmanuel
what is nuclear fission
Sadik Reply
hello
Shawty
are you there
Shawty
miss your absence here...
Shawty
what is a vector
Temitayo Reply
vectors are quantities that have numerical value or magnitude and direction.
Muhammad
what is regelation
Oladele
vector is any quantity that has magnitude and direction
Emmanuel
Physics is a physical science that deals with the study of matter in relation to energy
Divine Reply
Hi
Jimoh
hello
Salaudeen
hello
Sadik
Yes
Maxamuud
hi everyone
Muhammad
what is physics
Rhema Reply
physics is a physical science that deals with the study of matter in relation to energy
Osayuwa
a15kg powerexerted by the foresafter 3second
Firdos Reply
what is displacement
Xolani Reply
movement in a direction
Jason
hello
Hosea
Hey
Smart
haider
Explain why magnetic damping might not be effective on an object made of several thin conducting layers separated by insulation? can someone please explain this i need it for my final exam
anas Reply
Hi
saeid
hi
Yimam
Hi
Jimoh
An object made of several thin conducting layers separated by insulation may not be affected by magnetic damping because the eddy current produced in each layer due to induction will be very small and the opposing magnetic flux produced by the eddy currents will be very small
Muhammad
What is thê principle behind movement of thê taps control
Oluwakayode Reply
while
Hosea
what is atomic mass
thomas Reply
this is the mass of an atom of an element in ratio with the mass of carbon-atom
Chukwuka
show me how to get the accuracies of the values of the resistors for the two circuits i.e for series and parallel sides
Jesuovie Reply
Explain why it is difficult to have an ideal machine in real life situations.
Isaac Reply
tell me
Promise
what's the s . i unit for couple?
Promise
its s.i unit is Nm
Covenant
Force×perpendicular distance N×m=Nm
Oluwakayode
İt iş diffucult to have idêal machine because of FRİCTİON definitely reduce thê efficiency
Oluwakayode
It is difficult to have an ideal machine in real life situation because in ideal machines all the input energy should be converted to output energy . But , some part of energy is always lost in overcoming friction and input energy is always greater than output energy . Hence , no machine is ideal.
Muhammad

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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