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a f x + d ; a , d R

These changes are called external or post-composition modifications.

Arithmetic operations

Addition/subtraction operations

Addition and subtraction to independent variable x is represented as :

x + c ; c R

The notation represents addition operation when c is positive and subtraction when c is negative. In particular, we should underline that notation “bx+c” does not represent addition to independent variable. Rather it represents addition/ subtraction to “bx”. We shall develop proper algorithm to handle such operations subsequently. Similarly, addition and subtraction operation on function is represented as :

f(x) + d ; d R

Again, “af(x) + d” is addition/ subtraction to “af(x)” not to “f(x)”.

Product/division operations

Product and division operations are defined with a positive constant for both independent variable and function. It is because negation i.e. multiplication or division with -1 is a separate operation from the point of graphical effect. In the case of product operation, the magnitude of constants (a or b) is greater than 1 such that resulting value is greater than the original value.

b x ; | b | > 1 for independent variable a f x ; | a | > 1 for function

The division operation is eqivalent to product operation when value of multiplier is less than 1. In this case, magnitude of constants (a or b) is less than 1 such that resulting value is less than the original value.

b x ; 0 < | b | < 1 for independent variable a f x ; 0 < | a | < 1 for function

Negation

Negation means multiplication or division by -1.

Effect of arithmetic operations

Addition/ subtraction operation on independent variable results in shifting of core graph along x-axis i..e horizontally. Similarly, product/division operations results in scaling (shrinking or stretching) of core graph horizontally. The change in graphs due to negation is reflected as mirroring (across y–axis) horizontally. Clearly, modifications resulting from modification to input modifies core graph horizontally. Another important aspect of these modification is that changes takes place opposite to that of operation on independent variable. For example, when “2” is added to independent variable, then core graph shifts left which is opposite to the direction of increasing x. A multiplication by 2 shrinks the graph horizontally by a factor 2, whereas division by 2 stretches the graph by a factor of 2.

On the other hand, modification in the output of function is reflected in change in graphs along y-axis i.e. vertically. Effects such as shifting, scaling (shrinking or stretching) or mirroring across x-axis takes place in vertical direction. Also, the effect of modification in output is in the direction of modification as against effects due to modifications to input. A multiplication of function by a positive constant greater than 1, for example, stretches the graph in y-direction as expected. These aspects will be clear as we study each of the modifications mentioned here.

Forms of representation

There is a bit of ambiguity about the nature of constants in symbolic representation of transformation. Consider the representation,

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
What is power set
Satyabrata Reply
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x
Sneha Reply
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x
Sneha Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Functions. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10464/1.64
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