2.5 Motion equations for constant acceleration in one dimension  (Page 9/9)

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An express train passes through a station. It enters with an initial velocity of 22.0 m/s and decelerates at a rate of $0\text{.}{\text{150 m/s}}^{2}$ as it goes through. The station is 210 m long. (a) How long is the nose of the train in the station? (b) How fast is it going when the nose leaves the station? (c) If the train is 130 m long, when does the end of the train leave the station? (d) What is the velocity of the end of the train as it leaves?

Dragsters can actually reach a top speed of 145 m/s in only 4.45 s—considerably less time than given in [link] and [link] . (a) Calculate the average acceleration for such a dragster. (b) Find the final velocity of this dragster starting from rest and accelerating at the rate found in (a) for 402 m (a quarter mile) without using any information on time. (c) Why is the final velocity greater than that used to find the average acceleration? Hint : Consider whether the assumption of constant acceleration is valid for a dragster. If not, discuss whether the acceleration would be greater at the beginning or end of the run and what effect that would have on the final velocity.

(a) $\text{32}\text{.}{\text{6 m/s}}^{2}$

(b) $\text{162 m/s}$

(c) $v>{v}_{\text{max}}$ , because the assumption of constant acceleration is not valid for a dragster. A dragster changes gears, and would have a greater acceleration in first gear than second gear than third gear, etc. The acceleration would be greatest at the beginning, so it would not be accelerating at $\text{32}\text{.}{\text{6 m/s}}^{2}$ during the last few meters, but substantially less, and the final velocity would be less than 162 m/s.

A bicycle racer sprints at the end of a race to clinch a victory. The racer has an initial velocity of 11.5 m/s and accelerates at the rate of $0\text{.}{\text{500 m/s}}^{2}$ for 7.00 s. (a) What is his final velocity? (b) The racer continues at this velocity to the finish line. If he was 300 m from the finish line when he started to accelerate, how much time did he save? (c) One other racer was 5.00 m ahead when the winner started to accelerate, but he was unable to accelerate, and traveled at 11.8 m/s until the finish line. How far ahead of him (in meters and in seconds) did the winner finish?

In 1967, New Zealander Burt Munro set the world record for an Indian motorcycle, on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, with a maximum speed of 183.58 mi/h. The one-way course was 5.00 mi long. Acceleration rates are often described by the time it takes to reach 60.0 mi/h from rest. If this time was 4.00 s, and Burt accelerated at this rate until he reached his maximum speed, how long did it take Burt to complete the course?

104 s

(a) A world record was set for the men's 100-m dash in the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing by Usain Bolt of Jamaica. Bolt “coasted” across the finish line with a time of 9.69 s. If we assume that Bolt accelerated for 3.00 s to reach his maximum speed, and maintained that speed for the rest of the race, calculate his maximum speed and his acceleration. (b) During the same Olympics, Bolt also set the world record in the 200-m dash with a time of 19.30 s. Using the same assumptions as for the 100-m dash, what was his maximum speed for this race?

(a) $v=\text{12}\text{.}\text{2 m/s}$ ; $a=4\text{.}{\text{07 m/s}}^{2}$

(b) $v=\text{11}\text{.}\text{2 m/s}$

Test prep for ap courses

A group of students is attempting to determine the average acceleration of a marble released from the top of a long ramp. Below is a set of data representing the marble's position with respect to time.

Position (cm) Time (s)
0.0 0.0
0.3 0.5
1.25 1.0
2.8 1.5
5.0 2.0
7.75 2.5
11.3 3.0

Use the data table above to construct a graph determining the acceleration of the marble. Select a set of data points from the table and plot those points on the graph. Fill in the blank column in the table for any quantities you graph other than the given data. Label the axes and indicate the scale for each. Draw a best-fit line or curve through your data points.

Using the best-fit line, determine the value of the marble's acceleration.

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