# 3.2 Vector addition and subtraction: graphical methods  (Page 5/16)

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Height (m) Time (sec)
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1.470 0.5
1.470 0.6
1.372 0.7

A ball is launched at an angle of 60 degrees above the horizontal, and the vertical position of the ball is recorded at various points in time in the table shown, assuming the ball was at a height of 0 at time t = 0.

1. Draw a graph of the ball's vertical velocity versus time.
2. Describe the graph of the ball's horizontal velocity.
3. Draw a graph of the ball's vertical acceleration versus time.

The graph of the ball's vertical velocity over time should begin at 4.90 m/s during the time interval 0 - 0.1 sec (there should be a data point at t = 0.05 sec, v = 4.90 m/s). It should then have a slope of -9.8 m/s 2 , crossing through v = 0 at t = 0.55 sec and ending at v = -0.98 m/s at t = 0.65 sec.

The graph of the ball's horizontal velocity would be a constant positive value, a flat horizontal line at some positive velocity from t = 0 until t = 0.7 sec.

## Summary

• The graphical method of adding vectors $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$ involves drawing vectors on a graph and adding them using the head-to-tail method. The resultant vector $\mathbf{R}$ is defined such that $\mathbf{\text{A}}+\mathbf{\text{B}}=\mathbf{\text{R}}$ . The magnitude and direction of $\mathbf{R}$ are then determined with a ruler and protractor, respectively.
• The graphical method of subtracting vector $\mathbf{B}$ from $\mathbf{A}$ involves adding the opposite of vector $\mathbf{B}$ , which is defined as $-\mathbf{B}$ . In this case, $\text{A}–\mathbf{\text{B}}=\mathbf{\text{A}}+\left(\text{–B}\right)=\text{R}$ . Then, the head-to-tail method of addition is followed in the usual way to obtain the resultant vector $\mathbf{R}$ .
• Addition of vectors is commutative    such that .
• The head-to-tail method    of adding vectors involves drawing the first vector on a graph and then placing the tail of each subsequent vector at the head of the previous vector. The resultant vector is then drawn from the tail of the first vector to the head of the final vector.
• If a vector $\mathbf{A}$ is multiplied by a scalar quantity $c$ , the magnitude of the product is given by $\text{cA}$ . If $c$ is positive, the direction of the product points in the same direction as $\mathbf{A}$ ; if $c$ is negative, the direction of the product points in the opposite direction as $\mathbf{A}$ .

## Conceptual questions

Which of the following is a vector: a person's height, the altitude on Mt. Everest, the age of the Earth, the boiling point of water, the cost of this book, the Earth's population, the acceleration of gravity?

Give a specific example of a vector, stating its magnitude, units, and direction.

What do vectors and scalars have in common? How do they differ?

Two campers in a national park hike from their cabin to the same spot on a lake, each taking a different path, as illustrated below. The total distance traveled along Path 1 is 7.5 km, and that along Path 2 is 8.2 km. What is the final displacement of each camper?

If an airplane pilot is told to fly 123 km in a straight line to get from San Francisco to Sacramento, explain why he could end up anywhere on the circle shown in [link] . What other information would he need to get to Sacramento?

Suppose you take two steps $\mathbf{\text{A}}$ and $\mathbf{\text{B}}$ (that is, two nonzero displacements). Under what circumstances can you end up at your starting point? More generally, under what circumstances can two nonzero vectors add to give zero? Is the maximum distance you can end up from the starting point $\mathbf{\text{A}}+\mathbf{\text{B}}$ the sum of the lengths of the two steps?

an 8.0 capacitor is connected by to the terminals of 60Hz whoes rms voltage is 150v. a.find the capacity reactance and rms to the circuit
thanks so much. i undersooth well
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try to read several books on phy don't just rely one. some authors explain better than other.
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And don't forget to check out YouTube videos on the subject. Videos offer a different visual way to learn easier.
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hope that helps
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I have a exam on 12 february
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the speed of something in a given direction.
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it is also a property of vector quantities
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