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Metric prefixes for powers of 10 and their symbols
Prefix Symbol Value See [link] for a discussion of powers of 10. Example (some are approximate)
exa E 10 18 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"18"} } } {} exameter Em 10 18  m size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"18"} } " m"} {} distance light travels in a century
peta P 10 15 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"15"} } } {} petasecond Ps 10 15  s size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"15"} } " s"} {} 30 million years
tera T 10 12 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } } {} terawatt TW 10 12  W size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } `W} {} powerful laser output
giga G 10 9 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{9} } } {} gigahertz GHz 10 9  Hz size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{9} } `"Hz"} {} a microwave frequency
mega M 10 6 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} megacurie MCi 10 6  Ci size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{6} } `"Ci"} {} high radioactivity
kilo k 10 3 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} kilometer km 10 3  m size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " m"} {} about 6/10 mile
hecto h 10 2 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} hectoliter hL 10 2  L size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{2} } " L"} {} 26 gallons
deka da 10 1 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{1} } } {} dekagram dag 10 1  g size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{1} } `g} {} teaspoon of butter
10 0 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{0} } } {} (=1)
deci d 10 1 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 1} } } {} deciliter dL 10 1  L size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 1} } `L} {} less than half a soda
centi c 10 2 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } } {} centimeter cm 10 2  m size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } `m} {} fingertip thickness
milli m 10 3 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } } {} millimeter mm 10 3  m size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } `m} {} flea at its shoulders
micro µ 10 6 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 6} } } {} micrometer µm 10 6  m size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 6} } `m} {} detail in microscope
nano n 10 9 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 9} } } {} nanogram ng 10 9  g size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 9} } `g} {} small speck of dust
pico p 10 12 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - "12"} } } {} picofarad pF 10 12  F size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - "12"} } F} {} small capacitor in radio
femto f 10 15 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - "15"} } } {} femtometer fm 10 15  m size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - "15"} } `m} {} size of a proton
atto a 10 18 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - "18"} } } {} attosecond as 10 18  s size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - "18"} } `s} {} time light crosses an atom

Known ranges of length, mass, and time

The vastness of the universe and the breadth over which physics applies are illustrated by the wide range of examples of known lengths, masses, and times in [link] . Examination of this table will give you some feeling for the range of possible topics and numerical values. (See [link] and [link] .)

A magnified image of tiny phytoplankton swimming among the crystal of ice.[
Tiny phytoplankton swims among crystals of ice in the Antarctic Sea. They range from a few micrometers to as much as 2 millimeters in length. (credit: Prof. Gordon T. Taylor, Stony Brook University; NOAA Corps Collections)
A view of Abell Galaxy with some bright stars and some hot gases.
Galaxies collide 2.4 billion light years away from Earth. The tremendous range of observable phenomena in nature challenges the imagination. (credit: NASA/CXC/UVic./A. Mahdavi et al. Optical/lensing: CFHT/UVic./H. Hoekstra et al.)

Unit conversion and dimensional analysis

It is often necessary to convert from one type of unit to another. For example, if you are reading a European cookbook, some quantities may be expressed in units of liters and you need to convert them to cups. Or, perhaps you are reading walking directions from one location to another and you are interested in how many miles you will be walking. In this case, you will need to convert units of feet to miles.

Let us consider a simple example of how to convert units. Let us say that we want to convert 80 meters (m) to kilometers (km).

The first thing to do is to list the units that you have and the units that you want to convert to. In this case, we have units in meters and we want to convert to kilometers .

Next, we need to determine a conversion factor    relating meters to kilometers. A conversion factor is a ratio expressing how many of one unit are equal to another unit. For example, there are 12 inches in 1 foot, 100 centimeters in 1 meter, 60 seconds in 1 minute, and so on. In this case, we know that there are 1,000 meters in 1 kilometer.

Now we can set up our unit conversion. We will write the units that we have and then multiply them by the conversion factor so that the units cancel out, as shown:

80 m × 1 km 1000 m = 0 .080 km. size 12{"80"" m" times { {"1 km"} over {"1000 m"} } =0 "." "080"`"km"} {}

Note that the unwanted m unit cancels, leaving only the desired km unit. You can use this method to convert between any types of unit.

Questions & Answers

what is physics
Nwafor Reply
is the study of matter in relation to energy
Kintu
a submersible pump is dropped a borehole and hits the level of water at the bottom of the borehole 5 seconds later.determine the level of water in the borehole
Obrian Reply
what is power?
aron Reply
power P = Work done per second W/ t. It means the more power, the stronger machine
Sphere
e.g. heart Uses 2 W per beat.
Rohit
A spherica, concave shaving mirror has a radius of curvature of 32 cm .what is the magnification of a persons face. when it is 12cm to the left of the vertex of the mirror
Alona Reply
did you solve?
Shii
1.75cm
Ridwan
my name is Abu m.konnek I am a student of a electrical engineer and I want you to help me
Abu
the magnification k = f/(f-d) with focus f = R/2 =16 cm; d =12 cm k = 16/4 =4
Sphere
A weather vane is some sort of directional arrow parallel to the ground that may rotate freely in a horizontal plane. A typical weather vane has a large cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction the arrow is pointing, like a “One Way” street sign. The purpose of the weather vane is to indicate the direction of the wind. As wind blows pa
Kavita Reply
hi
Godfred
what about the wind vane
Godfred
If a prism is fully imersed in water then the ray of light will normally dispersed or their is any difference?
Anurag Reply
the same behavior thru the prism out or in water bud abbot
Ju
If this will experimented with a hollow(vaccum) prism in water then what will be result ?
Anurag
What was the previous far point of a patient who had laser correction that reduced the power of her eye by 7.00 D, producing a normal distant vision power of 50.0 D for her?
Jaydie Reply
What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
Jaydie
What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
Jaydie
A young woman with normal distant vision has a 10.0% ability to accommodate (that is, increase) the power of her eyes. What is the closest object she can see clearly?
Jaydie
29/20 ? maybes
Ju
In what ways does physics affect the society both positively or negatively
Princewill Reply
how can I read physics...am finding it difficult to understand...pls help
rerry Reply
try to read several books on phy don't just rely one. some authors explain better than other.
Ju
And don't forget to check out YouTube videos on the subject. Videos offer a different visual way to learn easier.
Ju
hope that helps
Ju
I have a exam on 12 february
David Reply
what is velocity
Jiti
the speed of something in a given direction.
Ju
what is a magnitude in physics
Jiti Reply
Propose a force standard different from the example of a stretched spring discussed in the text. Your standard must be capable of producing the same force repeatedly.
Giovani Reply
What is meant by dielectric charge?
It's Reply
what happens to the size of charge if the dielectric is changed?
Brhanu Reply
omega= omega not +alpha t derivation
Provakar Reply
u have to derivate it respected to time ...and as w is the angular velocity uu will relace it with "thita × time""
Abrar

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics for ap® courses. OpenStax CNX. Nov 04, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11844/1.14
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