# 1.2 Physical quantities and units  (Page 4/18)

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Metric prefixes for powers of 10 and their symbols
Prefix Symbol Value See Appendix A for a discussion of powers of 10. Example (some are approximate)
exa E ${\text{10}}^{\text{18}}$ exameter Em distance light travels in a century
peta P ${\text{10}}^{\text{15}}$ petasecond Ps 30 million years
tera T ${\text{10}}^{\text{12}}$ terawatt TW powerful laser output
giga G ${\text{10}}^{9}$ gigahertz GHz a microwave frequency
mega M ${\text{10}}^{6}$ megacurie MCi high radioactivity
kilo k ${\text{10}}^{3}$ kilometer km about 6/10 mile
hecto h ${\text{10}}^{2}$ hectoliter hL 26 gallons
deka da ${\text{10}}^{1}$ dekagram dag teaspoon of butter
${\text{10}}^{0}$ (=1)
deci d ${\text{10}}^{-1}$ deciliter dL less than half a soda
centi c ${\text{10}}^{-2}$ centimeter cm fingertip thickness
milli m ${\text{10}}^{-3}$ millimeter mm flea at its shoulders
micro µ ${\text{10}}^{-6}$ micrometer µm detail in microscope
nano n ${\text{10}}^{-9}$ nanogram ng small speck of dust
pico p ${\text{10}}^{-\text{12}}$ picofarad pF small capacitor in radio
femto f ${\text{10}}^{-\text{15}}$ femtometer fm size of a proton
atto a ${\text{10}}^{-\text{18}}$ attosecond as time light crosses an atom

## Known ranges of length, mass, and time

The vastness of the universe and the breadth over which physics applies are illustrated by the wide range of examples of known lengths, masses, and times in [link] . Examination of this table will give you some feeling for the range of possible topics and numerical values. (See [link] and [link] .)

## Unit conversion and dimensional analysis

It is often necessary to convert from one type of unit to another. For example, if you are reading a European cookbook, some quantities may be expressed in units of liters and you need to convert them to cups. Or, perhaps you are reading walking directions from one location to another and you are interested in how many miles you will be walking. In this case, you will need to convert units of feet to miles.

Let us consider a simple example of how to convert units. Let us say that we want to convert 80 meters (m) to kilometers (km).

The first thing to do is to list the units that you have and the units that you want to convert to. In this case, we have units in meters and we want to convert to kilometers .

Next, we need to determine a conversion factor    relating meters to kilometers. A conversion factor is a ratio expressing how many of one unit are equal to another unit. For example, there are 12 inches in 1 foot, 100 centimeters in 1 meter, 60 seconds in 1 minute, and so on. In this case, we know that there are 1,000 meters in 1 kilometer.

Now we can set up our unit conversion. We will write the units that we have and then multiply them by the conversion factor so that the units cancel out, as shown:

$80\overline{)\text{m}}×\frac{\text{1 km}}{1000\overline{)\text{m}}}=0\text{.080 km.}$

Note that the unwanted m unit cancels, leaving only the desired km unit. You can use this method to convert between any types of unit.

Water is flowing in a pipe with a varying cross-sectional area, and at all points the water completely fills the pipe. At point 1 the cross-sectional area of the pipe is 0.077 m2, and the magnitude of the fluid velocity is 3.50 m/s. (a) What is the fluid speed at points in the pipe where the cross
A particle behave like a wave and we do not why?
WAQAR
what's the period of velocity 4cm/s at displacement 10cm
What is physics
the branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy. The subject matter of physics includes mechanics, heat, light and other radiation, sound, electricity, magnetism, and the structure of atoms.
Aluko
and the word of matter is anything that have mass and occupied space
Aluko
what is phyices
Whats the formula
1/v+1/u=1/f
Aluko
what aspect of black body spectrum forced plank to purpose quantization of energy level in its atoms and molicules
a man has created by who?
What type of experimental evidence indicates that light is a wave
double slit experiment
Eric
The S. L. Unit of sound energy is
what's the conversation like?
some sort of blatherring or mambo jambo you may say
I still don't understand what this group is all about oo
ENOBONG
no
uchenna
ufff....this associated with physics ..so u can ask questions related to all topics of physics..
what is sound?
Bella
what is upthrust
what is upthrust
Olisa
Up thrust is a force
Samuel
upthrust is a upward force that acts vertical in the ground surface.
Rodney
Paul
what is centre of gravity?
Paul
you think the human body could produce such Force
Anthony
what is wave
mirobiology
Angel
what is specific latent heat
the total amount of heat energy required to change the physical state of a unit mass of matter without a corresponding change in temperature.
fitzgerald
is there any difference between specific heat and heat capacity.....
what wave
Bryan
why medical physics even.we have a specoal branch of science biology for this.
what is physics