# 5.3 Elasticity: stress and strain  (Page 5/15)

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## Sideways stress: shear modulus

[link] illustrates what is meant by a sideways stress or a shearing force . Here the deformation is called $\Delta x$ and it is perpendicular to ${L}_{0}$ , rather than parallel as with tension and compression. Shear deformation behaves similarly to tension and compression and can be described with similar equations. The expression for shear deformation    is

$\Delta x=\frac{1}{S}\frac{F}{A}{L}_{0},$

where $S$ is the shear modulus (see [link] ) and $F$ is the force applied perpendicular to ${L}_{0}$ and parallel to the cross-sectional area $A$ . Again, to keep the object from accelerating, there are actually two equal and opposite forces $F$ applied across opposite faces, as illustrated in [link] . The equation is logical—for example, it is easier to bend a long thin pencil (small $A$ ) than a short thick one, and both are more easily bent than similar steel rods (large $S$ ).

## Shear deformation

$\Delta x=\frac{1}{S}\frac{F}{A}{L}_{0},$

where $S$ is the shear modulus and $F$ is the force applied perpendicular to ${L}_{0}$ and parallel to the cross-sectional area $A$ .

Examination of the shear moduli in [link] reveals some telling patterns. For example, shear moduli are less than Young's moduli for most materials. Bone is a remarkable exception. Its shear modulus is not only greater than its Young's modulus, but it is as large as that of steel. This is one reason that bones can be long and relatively thin. Bones can support loads comparable to that of concrete and steel. Most bone fractures are not caused by compression but by excessive twisting and bending.

The spinal column (consisting of 26 vertebral segments separated by discs) provides the main support for the head and upper part of the body. The spinal column has normal curvature for stability, but this curvature can be increased, leading to increased shearing forces on the lower vertebrae. Discs are better at withstanding compressional forces than shear forces. Because the spine is not vertical, the weight of the upper body exerts some of both. Pregnant women and people that are overweight (with large abdomens) need to move their shoulders back to maintain balance, thereby increasing the curvature in their spine and so increasing the shear component of the stress. An increased angle due to more curvature increases the shear forces along the plane. These higher shear forces increase the risk of back injury through ruptured discs. The lumbosacral disc (the wedge shaped disc below the last vertebrae) is particularly at risk because of its location.

The shear moduli for concrete and brick are very small; they are too highly variable to be listed. Concrete used in buildings can withstand compression, as in pillars and arches, but is very poor against shear, as might be encountered in heavily loaded floors or during earthquakes. Modern structures were made possible by the use of steel and steel-reinforced concrete. Almost by definition, liquids and gases have shear moduli near zero, because they flow in response to shearing forces.

Determine the total force and the absolute pressure on the bottom of a swimming pool 28.0m by 8.5m whose uniform depth is 1 .8m.
for the answer to complete, the units need specified why
That's just how the AP grades. Otherwise, you could be talking about m/s when the answer requires m/s^2. They need to know what you are referring to.
Kyle
Suppose a speck of dust in an electrostatic precipitator has 1.0000×1012 protons in it and has a net charge of –5.00 nC (a very large charge for a small speck). How many electrons does it have?
how would I work this problem
Alexia
how can you have not an integer number of protons? If, on the other hand it supposed to be 1e12, then 1.6e-19C/proton • 1e12 protons=1.6e-7 C is the charge of the protons in the speck, so the difference between this and 5e-9C is made up by electrons
Igor
what is angular velocity
angular velocity can be defined as the rate of change in radian over seconds.
Fidelis
Why does earth exert only a tiny downward pull?
hello
Islam
Why is light bright?
an 8.0 capacitor is connected by to the terminals of 60Hz whoes rms voltage is 150v. a.find the capacity reactance and rms to the circuit
thanks so much. i undersooth well
what is physics
is the study of matter in relation to energy
Kintu
physics can be defined as the natural science that deals with the study of motion through space,time along with its related concepts which are energy and force
Fidelis
a submersible pump is dropped a borehole and hits the level of water at the bottom of the borehole 5 seconds later.determine the level of water in the borehole
what is power?
power P = Work done per second W/ t. It means the more power, the stronger machine
Sphere
e.g. heart Uses 2 W per beat.
Rohit
A spherica, concave shaving mirror has a radius of curvature of 32 cm .what is the magnification of a persons face. when it is 12cm to the left of the vertex of the mirror
did you solve?
Shii
1.75cm
Ridwan
my name is Abu m.konnek I am a student of a electrical engineer and I want you to help me
Abu
the magnification k = f/(f-d) with focus f = R/2 =16 cm; d =12 cm k = 16/4 =4
Sphere
what do we call velocity
Kings
A weather vane is some sort of directional arrow parallel to the ground that may rotate freely in a horizontal plane. A typical weather vane has a large cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction the arrow is pointing, like a “One Way” street sign. The purpose of the weather vane is to indicate the direction of the wind. As wind blows pa
hi
Godfred
Godfred
If a prism is fully imersed in water then the ray of light will normally dispersed or their is any difference?
the same behavior thru the prism out or in water bud abbot
Ju
If this will experimented with a hollow(vaccum) prism in water then what will be result ?
Anurag