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ε l = vB . size 12{ { {ε} over {l} } = ital "vB" "." } {}

Solving this for the Hall emf yields

ε = Blv ( B , v , and l , mutually perpendicular ) , size 12{ε= ital "Blv"``` \( B,`v,`"and"`l,`"mutually perpendicular" \) ,} {}

where ε size 12{ε} {} is the Hall effect voltage across a conductor of width l size 12{l} {} through which charges move at a speed v size 12{v} {} .

Diagram showing an electron moving to the left in a three-dimensional rectangular space with velocity v. The magnetic field is oriented out of the page. The electric field is down. The electric force on the charge is up while the magnetic force on the charge is down. An illustration of the right hand rule shows the thumb pointing to the left with v, the fingers out of the page with B, and the force on a positive charge up and away from the palm.
The Hall emf ε size 12{ε} {} produces an electric force that balances the magnetic force on the moving charges. The magnetic force produces charge separation, which builds up until it is balanced by the electric force, an equilibrium that is quickly reached.

One of the most common uses of the Hall effect is in the measurement of magnetic field strength B size 12{B} {} . Such devices, called Hall probes , can be made very small, allowing fine position mapping. Hall probes can also be made very accurate, usually accomplished by careful calibration. Another application of the Hall effect is to measure fluid flow in any fluid that has free charges (most do). (See [link] .) A magnetic field applied perpendicular to the flow direction produces a Hall emf ε size 12{ε} {} as shown. Note that the sign of ε size 12{ε} {} depends not on the sign of the charges, but only on the directions of B size 12{B} {} and v size 12{v} {} . The magnitude of the Hall emf is ε = Blv size 12{ε= ital "Blv"} {} , where l size 12{l} {} is the pipe diameter, so that the average velocity v size 12{v} {} can be determined from ε size 12{ε} {} providing the other factors are known.

Diagram showing a tube with diameter l with one end between the north and south poles of a magnet. The charges are moving with velocity v within the tube and out of the page. The magnetic field B is oriented across the tube, from the north to the south pole of the magnet. The force on the charges is up for positive charges and down for negative charges. e m f = B l v.
The Hall effect can be used to measure fluid flow in any fluid having free charges, such as blood. The Hall emf ε size 12{ε} {} is measured across the tube perpendicular to the applied magnetic field and is proportional to the average velocity v size 12{v} {} .

Calculating the hall emf: hall effect for blood flow

A Hall effect flow probe is placed on an artery, applying a 0.100-T magnetic field across it, in a setup similar to that in [link] . What is the Hall emf, given the vessel’s inside diameter is 4.00 mm and the average blood velocity is 20.0 cm/s?

Strategy

Because B size 12{B} {} , v size 12{v} {} , and l size 12{l} {} are mutually perpendicular, the equation ε = Blv size 12{ε= ital "Blv"} {} can be used to find ε size 12{ε} {} .

Solution

Entering the given values for B size 12{B} {} , v size 12{v} {} , and l size 12{l} {} gives

ε = Blv = 0.100 T 4 . 00 × 10 3 m 0 .200 m/s = 80.0 μV alignl { stack { size 12{ε= ital "Blv"= left (0 "." "100"`T right ) left (4 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } `m right ) left (0 "." "200"`"m/s" right )} {} # ="80" "." 0`"μV" {}} } {}

Discussion

This is the average voltage output. Instantaneous voltage varies with pulsating blood flow. The voltage is small in this type of measurement. ε size 12{ε} {} is particularly difficult to measure, because there are voltages associated with heart action (ECG voltages) that are on the order of millivolts. In practice, this difficulty is overcome by applying an AC magnetic field, so that the Hall emf is AC with the same frequency. An amplifier can be very selective in picking out only the appropriate frequency, eliminating signals and noise at other frequencies.

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Section summary

  • The Hall effect is the creation of voltage ε size 12{ε} {} , known as the Hall emf, across a current-carrying conductor by a magnetic field.
  • The Hall emf is given by
    ε = Blv ( B , v , and l , mutually perpendicular ) size 12{ε= ital "Blv"``` \( B,`v,`"and"`l,`"mutually perpendicular" \) } {}
    for a conductor of width l size 12{l} {} through which charges move at a speed v size 12{v} {} .

Conceptual questions

Discuss how the Hall effect could be used to obtain information on free charge density in a conductor. (Hint: Consider how drift velocity and current are related.)

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Problems&Exercises

A large water main is 2.50 m in diameter and the average water velocity is 6.00 m/s. Find the Hall voltage produced if the pipe runs perpendicular to the Earth’s 5 . 00 × 10 5 -T size 12{5 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 5} } "-T"} {} field.

7 . 50 × 10 4 V

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What Hall voltage is produced by a 0.200-T field applied across a 2.60-cm-diameter aorta when blood velocity is 60.0 cm/s?

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(a) What is the speed of a supersonic aircraft with a 17.0-m wingspan, if it experiences a 1.60-V Hall voltage between its wing tips when in level flight over the north magnetic pole, where the Earth’s field strength is 8 . 00 × 10 5 T? size 12{8 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 5} } `"T?"} {} (b) Explain why very little current flows as a result of this Hall voltage.

(a) 1.18 × 10 3 m/s

(b) Once established, the Hall emf pushes charges one direction and the magnetic force acts in the opposite direction resulting in no net force on the charges. Therefore, no current flows in the direction of the Hall emf. This is the same as in a current-carrying conductor—current does not flow in the direction of the Hall emf.

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A nonmechanical water meter could utilize the Hall effect by applying a magnetic field across a metal pipe and measuring the Hall voltage produced. What is the average fluid velocity in a 3.00-cm-diameter pipe, if a 0.500-T field across it creates a 60.0-mV Hall voltage?

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Calculate the Hall voltage induced on a patient’s heart while being scanned by an MRI unit. Approximate the conducting path on the heart wall by a wire 7.50 cm long that moves at 10.0 cm/s perpendicular to a 1.50-T magnetic field.

11.3 mV

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A Hall probe calibrated to read 1 . 00 μV size 12{1 "." "00"`"μV"} {} when placed in a 2.00-T field is placed in a 0.150-T field. What is its output voltage?

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Using information in [link] , what would the Hall voltage be if a 2.00-T field is applied across a 10-gauge copper wire (2.588 mm in diameter) carrying a 20.0-A current?

1. 16 μV size 12{1 "." "47"`"μV"} {}

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Show that the Hall voltage across wires made of the same material, carrying identical currents, and subjected to the same magnetic field is inversely proportional to their diameters. (Hint: Consider how drift velocity depends on wire diameter.)

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A patient with a pacemaker is mistakenly being scanned for an MRI image. A 10.0-cm-long section of pacemaker wire moves at a speed of 10.0 cm/s perpendicular to the MRI unit’s magnetic field and a 20.0-mV Hall voltage is induced. What is the magnetic field strength?

2.00 T

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Questions & Answers

what is radioactivity
Adeniyi Reply
Radioactivity is the disintegration process by which certain heavy element like uranium,radium etc with unstable type of atomic nuclei
Steven
Good morning great brains
AGBAI-IGWE Reply
Morning
James
what is the mcq
Shubham Reply
some questions on vector
Rose Reply
where are mcq?
wald Reply
Please what is the meaning of mcq
Appiah
what is static on its own
Aniedi Reply
where is the position of distance
AHMED Reply
what is physics
Mbaba Reply
Physics is the study of the world around us hence it study matter and it nature
Steven
calculate the angular displacement for an object which completes five revolutions
Bisalom Reply
I need someone to explain how white light disperses to form the "ROYGBIV".
Dera Reply
when it pass through a glass prism through a process called dispersion of light
Mahmud
What is an atom
Sulaimon Reply
An atom is the smallest indivisible particle of an element
Dera
an atom is the smallest particle of an element
Divine
what's an ion
Osuoha
an Atom is divisible, it is divided into proton, neutron and electrons. Those are the three components of Atom
adewunmi
But it is the smallest indivisibile particle of an element
James
that was John Dalton 's postulation which has been modified into the new atomic theory by Rutherford, J.J thompson
adewunmi
When a toilet is flushed or a sink is drained, the water (and other material) begins to rotate about the drain on the way down. Assuming no initial rotation and a flow initially directly straight toward the drain, explain what causes the rotation and which direction it has in the northern hemisphere.
Collin Reply
find the change in entropy of a 2.00 kg block of gold at 1063^0C when it meets to become liquid gold at 1063^0C
precious Reply
if you are asked to make a very sensitive thermometer which of the following fluids would you choose
precious
between mercy and gasoline
precious
it good to use mercury because mercury does not wet glass and it does not evaporate easily
Desmond
0
firdaus
SFAR Sifar SIFAT -<SIFST
firdaus
how many particles are in 2 moles of chromium
Mario Reply
if so use the normal formula number of atom= number of particle/Avogadro's number
Aki
n= np/avogadtos constant. therefore n= 24/ 6.022×10²³
albert
24÷6.022×10²³
albert
@Albert is wrong
Aki
when you cross multiple it should give you Number of particles= mole*Avogadro's number X=2m*6.022*10^²³ X=1.20*10²⁴g
Aki
1.204×10^-22
Maame
please what is final velocity and initial velocity
Nonso Reply
don't know
Ekene
what do you want to become in future
Ekene
Y ar u asking pls
Nonso
I think initial velocity is the velocity that the mobile starts with at the start time (t=0s) but I don't think I heard abt final velocity
Malak
Malak where are you now I need to learn more from you
Ekene
initial velocity is the velocity an object possess at it intial position or is the starting velocity, while a final velocity is the velocity an object or body possess at it final stage or at the end of it motion
Mubarak
Final velocity is the velocity a body possess when it comes to rest
Opoku
Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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