# 30.7 Patterns in spectra reveal more quantization  (Page 2/9)

 Page 2 / 9

We already know that the magnitude of angular momentum is quantized for electron orbits in atoms. The new insight is that the direction of the orbital angular momentum is also quantized . The fact that the orbital angular momentum can have only certain directions is called space quantization    . Like many aspects of quantum mechanics, this quantization of direction is totally unexpected. On the macroscopic scale, orbital angular momentum, such as that of the moon around the earth, can have any magnitude and be in any direction.

Detailed treatment of space quantization began to explain some complexities of atomic spectra, but certain patterns seemed to be caused by something else. As mentioned, spectral lines are actually closely spaced doublets, a characteristic called fine structure    , as shown in [link] . The doublet changes when a magnetic field is applied, implying that whatever causes the doublet interacts with a magnetic field. In 1925, Sem Goudsmit and George Uhlenbeck, two Dutch physicists, successfully argued that electrons have properties analogous to a macroscopic charge spinning on its axis. Electrons, in fact, have an internal or intrinsic angular momentum called intrinsic spin     $\mathbf{\text{S}}$ . Since electrons are charged, their intrinsic spin creates an intrinsic magnetic field     ${\mathbf{\text{B}}}_{\text{int}}$ , which interacts with their orbital magnetic field ${\mathbf{\text{B}}}_{\text{orb}}$ . Furthermore, electron intrinsic spin is quantized in magnitude and direction , analogous to the situation for orbital angular momentum. The spin of the electron can have only one magnitude, and its direction can be at only one of two angles relative to a magnetic field, as seen in [link] . We refer to this as spin up or spin down for the electron. Each spin direction has a different energy; hence, spectroscopic lines are split into two. Spectral doublets are now understood as being due to electron spin.

These two new insights—that the direction of angular momentum, whether orbital or spin, is quantized, and that electrons have intrinsic spin—help to explain many of the complexities of atomic and molecular spectra. In magnetic resonance imaging, it is the way that the intrinsic magnetic field of hydrogen and biological atoms interact with an external field that underlies the diagnostic fundamentals.

## Section summary

• The Zeeman effect—the splitting of lines when a magnetic field is applied—is caused by other quantized entities in atoms.
• Both the magnitude and direction of orbital angular momentum are quantized.
• The same is true for the magnitude and direction of the intrinsic spin of electrons.

## Conceptual questions

What is the Zeeman effect, and what type of quantization was discovered because of this effect?

the definition of photon
8kg of a hot liquid initial T is 90°© is missed with another liquid 3kg at 20° calculate e équilibrium T
8kg of a hot liquid initial T is 90°© is missed with another liquid 3kg at 20° calculate e équilibrium T
Balki
Bright
what are the products when acid and base mixed?
Austin
what work done
work done is the product of force and distance moved in the direction of force
Work done = force (F) * distance (D)
abdulsalam
what is resounance
Abdul
y
Tracy
explain the three laws of isaac Newton with the reference
1st law ; a body will continue to stay at a state of rest or continue to move at a uniform motion on a straight line unless an external force is been acted upon
Austine
3rd law; in every action there is an equal or opposite reaction
Austine
2nd law: F=ma
Austine
what is circut
newtons law of motion
hasiya
First law:In an inertial frame of reference, an object either remains at rest or continues to move at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a force.
Manan
is the ability to do work
Energy
Nwany
u from
Hejreen
any body online hain
Hejreen
ability to do work is energy
what is energy
energy is ability of the capacity to doing work
shafiu
what is vector
A quantity that has both magnitude and direction
Donaldo
can a body with out mass float in space
mosco
Is the quantity that has both magnitude and direction
Amoah
Yes it can float in space,e.g.polyethene has no mass that's why it can float in space
Amoah
that's my suggestion,any other explanation can be given also,thanks
Amoah
A charge of 1.6*10^-6C is placed in a uniform electric field in a density 2*5^10Nc^-1, what is the magnitude of the electric force exerted on the charge?
what's phenomena
Phenomena is an observable fact or event.
Love
Prove that 1/d+1/v=1/f
What interference
What is a polarized light called?
Moyinoluwa
what is a half life
the time taken for a radioactive element to decay by half of its original mass
ken
mohammed
Half of the total time required by a radioactive nuclear atom to totally disintegrate
Justice
radioactive elements are those with unstable nuclei(ie have protons more than neutrons, or neutrons more than protons
Justice
in other words, the radioactive atom or elements have unequal number of protons to neutrons.
Justice
state the laws of refraction
Fabian
state laws of reflection
Fabian
Why does a bicycle rider bends towards the corner when is turning?
Mac
When do we say that the stone thrown vertically up wards accelerate negatively?
Mac
Give two importance of insulator placed between plates of a capacitor.
Mac
Macho had a shoe with a big sole moving in mudy Road, shanitah had a shoe with a small sole. Give reasons for those two cases.
Mac
when was the name taken from
retardation of a car
Biola
when was the name retardation taken
Biola
did you mean a motion with velocity decreases uniformly by the time? then, the vector acceleration is opposite direction with vector velocity
Sphere
what's velocity
mosco
Velocity is the rate of change of displacement
Divya