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Making connections: take-home experiment—electrical energy use inventory

1) Make a list of the power ratings on a range of appliances in your home or room. Explain why something like a toaster has a higher rating than a digital clock. Estimate the energy consumed by these appliances in an average day (by estimating their time of use). Some appliances might only state the operating current. If the household voltage is 120 V, then use P = IV size 12{P = ital "IV"} {} . 2) Check out the total wattage used in the rest rooms of your school’s floor or building. (You might need to assume the long fluorescent lights in use are rated at 32 W.) Suppose that the building was closed all weekend and that these lights were left on from 6 p.m. Friday until 8 a.m. Monday. What would this oversight cost? How about for an entire year of weekends?

Section summary

  • Electric power P size 12{P} {} is the rate (in watts) that energy is supplied by a source or dissipated by a device.
  • Three expressions for electrical power are
    P = IV, size 12{P = ital "IV,"} {}
    P = V 2 R , size 12{P = { {V rSup { size 8{2} } } over {R} } ","} {}

    and

    P = I 2 R . size 12{P = I rSup { size 8{2} } R"."} {}
  • The energy used by a device with a power P size 12{P} {} over a time t size 12{t} {} is E = Pt size 12{E = ital "Pt"} {} .

Conceptual questions

Why do incandescent lightbulbs grow dim late in their lives, particularly just before their filaments break?

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The power dissipated in a resistor is given by P = V 2 / R size 12{P = V rSup { size 8{2} } /R} {} , which means power decreases if resistance increases. Yet this power is also given by P = I 2 R size 12{P = I rSup { size 8{2} } R} {} , which means power increases if resistance increases. Explain why there is no contradiction here.

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Problem exercises

What is the power of a 1.00 × 10 2 MV lightning bolt having a current of 2.00 × 10 4 A ?

2 . 00 × 10 12 W size 12{2 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } " W"} {}

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What power is supplied to the starter motor of a large truck that draws 250 A of current from a 24.0-V battery hookup?

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A charge of 4.00 C of charge passes through a pocket calculator’s solar cells in 4.00 h. What is the power output, given the calculator’s voltage output is 3.00 V? (See [link] .)

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Photograph of a small calculator having a strip of solar cells just above the keys.
The strip of solar cells just above the keys of this calculator convert light to electricity to supply its energy needs. (credit: Evan-Amos, Wikimedia Commons)

How many watts does a flashlight that has 6.00 × 10 2 C pass through it in 0.500 h use if its voltage is 3.00 V?

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Find the power dissipated in each of these extension cords: (a) an extension cord having a 0 . 0600 - Ω size 12{0 "." "0600-" %OMEGA } {} resistance and through which 5.00 A is flowing; (b) a cheaper cord utilizing thinner wire and with a resistance of 0 . 300 Ω . size 12{0 "." "300" %OMEGA } {}

(a) 1.50 W

(b) 7.50 W

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Verify that the units of a volt-ampere are watts, as implied by the equation P = IV size 12{P = ital "IV"} {} .

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Show that the units 1 V 2 / Ω = 1 W size 12{1" V" rSup { size 8{2} } / %OMEGA =1" W"} {} , as implied by the equation P = V 2 / R size 12{P = V rSup { size 8{2} } /R} {} .

V 2 Ω = V 2 V/A = AV = C s J C = J s = 1 W

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Show that the units 1 A 2 Ω = 1 W size 12{1" V" rSup { size 8{2} } / %OMEGA =1" W"} {} , as implied by the equation P = I 2 R size 12{P = I rSup { size 8{2} } R} {} .

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Verify the energy unit equivalence that 1 kW h = 3 . 60 × 10 6 J size 12{1" kW" cdot "h = 3" "." "60"´"10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J"} {} .

1 kW h= 1 × 10 3 J 1 s 1 h 3600 s 1 h = 3 . 60 × 10 6 J size 12{1" kW" cdot "h=" left ( { {1 times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " J"} over {"1 s"} } right ) left (1" h" right ) left ( { {"3600"" s"} over {"1 h"} } right )=3 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J"} {}

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Electrons in an X-ray tube are accelerated through 1.00 × 10 2 kV and directed toward a target to produce X-rays. Calculate the power of the electron beam in this tube if it has a current of 15.0 mA.

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An electric water heater consumes 5.00 kW for 2.00 h per day. What is the cost of running it for one year if electricity costs 12.0 cents /kW h size 12{"12" "." 0" cents/kW" cdot h} {} ? See [link] .

Photograph of an electric hot water heater connected to the electric and water supply
On-demand electric hot water heater. Heat is supplied to water only when needed. (credit: aviddavid, Flickr)

$438/y

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Questions & Answers

What is the difference between a principle and a law
the law is universally proved. The principal depends on certain conditions.
Dr
state Faraday first law
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what does the speedometer of a car measure ?
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Car speedometer measures the rate of change of distance per unit time.
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using the law of reflection explain how powder takes the shine off a person's nose. what is the name of the optical effect?
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is higher resolution of microscope using red or blue light?.explain
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Unlike transverse waves such as electromagnetic waves, longitudinal waves such as sound waves cannot be polarized. ... Since sound waves vibrate along their direction of propagation, they cannot be polarized
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An American traveler in New Zealand carries a transformer to convert New Zealand’s standard 240 V to 120 V so that she can use some small appliances on her trip.
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The potential difference between any two points on the surface is zero that implies È.Ŕ=0, Where R is the distance between two different points &E= Electric field intensity. From which we have cos þ =0, where þ is the angle between the directions of field and distance line, as E andR are zero. Thus
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Practice Key Terms 1

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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