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Patterns and systematics

The recognition and appreciation of patterns has enabled us to make many discoveries. The periodic table of elements was proposed as an organized summary of the known elements long before all elements had been discovered, and it led to many other discoveries. We shall see in later chapters that patterns in the properties of subatomic particles led to the proposal of quarks as their underlying structure, an idea that is still bearing fruit.

Knowledge of the properties of elements and compounds grew, culminating in the mid-19th-century development of the periodic table of the elements by Dmitri Mendeleev (1834–1907), the great Russian chemist. Mendeleev proposed an ingenious array that highlighted the periodic nature of the properties of elements. Believing in the systematics of the periodic table, he also predicted the existence of then-unknown elements to complete it. Once these elements were discovered and determined to have properties predicted by Mendeleev, his periodic table became universally accepted.

Also during the 19th century, the kinetic theory of gases was developed. Kinetic theory is based on the existence of atoms and molecules in random thermal motion and provides a microscopic explanation of the gas laws, heat transfer, and thermodynamics (see Introduction to Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws and Introduction to Laws of Thermodynamics ). Kinetic theory works so well that it is another strong indication of the existence of atoms. But it is still indirect evidence—individual atoms and molecules had not been observed. There were heated debates about the validity of kinetic theory until direct evidence of atoms was obtained.

The first truly direct evidence of atoms is credited to Robert Brown, a Scottish botanist. In 1827, he noticed that tiny pollen grains suspended in still water moved about in complex paths. This can be observed with a microscope for any small particles in a fluid. The motion is caused by the random thermal motions of fluid molecules colliding with particles in the fluid, and it is now called Brownian motion    . (See [link] .) Statistical fluctuations in the numbers of molecules striking the sides of a visible particle cause it to move first this way, then that. Although the molecules cannot be directly observed, their effects on the particle can be. By examining Brownian motion, the size of molecules can be calculated. The smaller and more numerous they are, the smaller the fluctuations in the numbers striking different sides.

Inside a circle, water molecules are shown with a magnified image of a suspended pollen grain. The suspended particle is being constantly hit by molecules in the surrounding fluid. The path followed by the pollen grain is zig-zagging and complex, illustrating Brownian motion.
The position of a pollen grain in water, measured every few seconds under a microscope, exhibits Brownian motion. Brownian motion is due to fluctuations in the number of atoms and molecules colliding with a small mass, causing it to move about in complex paths. This is nearly direct evidence for the existence of atoms, providing a satisfactory alternative explanation cannot be found.

It was Albert Einstein who, starting in his epochal year of 1905, published several papers that explained precisely how Brownian motion could be used to measure the size of atoms and molecules. (In 1905 Einstein created special relativity, proposed photons as quanta of EM radiation, and produced a theory of Brownian motion that allowed the size of atoms to be determined. All of this was done in his spare time, since he worked days as a patent examiner. Any one of these very basic works could have been the crowning achievement of an entire career—yet Einstein did even more in later years.) Their sizes were only approximately known to be 10 −10 m , based on a comparison of latent heat of vaporization and surface tension made in about 1805 by Thomas Young of double-slit fame and the famous astronomer and mathematician Simon Laplace.

Using Einstein’s ideas, the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Perrin (1870–1942) carefully observed Brownian motion; not only did he confirm Einstein’s theory, he also produced accurate sizes for atoms and molecules. Since molecular weights and densities of materials were well established, knowing atomic and molecular sizes allowed a precise value for Avogadro’s number to be obtained. (If we know how big an atom is, we know how many fit into a certain volume.) Perrin also used these ideas to explain atomic and molecular agitation effects in sedimentation, and he received the 1926 Nobel Prize for his achievements. Most scientists were already convinced of the existence of atoms, but the accurate observation and analysis of Brownian motion was conclusive—it was the first truly direct evidence.

A huge array of direct and indirect evidence for the existence of atoms now exists. For example, it has become possible to accelerate ions (much as electrons are accelerated in cathode-ray tubes) and to detect them individually as well as measure their masses (see More Applications of Magnetism for a discussion of mass spectrometers). Other devices that observe individual atoms, such as the scanning tunneling electron microscope, will be discussed elsewhere. (See [link] .) All of our understanding of the properties of matter is based on and consistent with the atom. The atom’s substructures, such as electron shells and the nucleus, are both interesting and important. The nucleus in turn has a substructure, as do the particles of which it is composed. These topics, and the question of whether there is a smallest basic structure to matter, will be explored in later parts of the text.

A pattern of diagonal lines in golden and brown color depicting gold atoms as observed with a scanning tunneling electron microscope.
Individual atoms can be detected with devices such as the scanning tunneling electron microscope that produced this image of individual gold atoms on a graphite substrate. (credit: Erwin Rossen, Eindhoven University of Technology, via Wikimedia Commons)

Section summary

  • Atoms are the smallest unit of elements; atoms combine to form molecules, the smallest unit of compounds.
  • The first direct observation of atoms was in Brownian motion.
  • Analysis of Brownian motion gave accurate sizes for atoms ( 10 −10 m on average) and a precise value for Avogadro’s number.

Conceptual questions

Name three different types of evidence for the existence of atoms.

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Explain why patterns observed in the periodic table of the elements are evidence for the existence of atoms, and why Brownian motion is a more direct type of evidence for their existence.

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If atoms exist, why can’t we see them with visible light?

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Using the given charge-to-mass ratios for electrons and protons, and knowing the magnitudes of their charges are equal, what is the ratio of the proton’s mass to the electron’s? (Note that since the charge-to-mass ratios are given to only three-digit accuracy, your answer may differ from the accepted ratio in the fourth digit.)

1 . 84 × 10 3 size 12{1 "." "84" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

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(a) Calculate the mass of a proton using the charge-to-mass ratio given for it in this chapter and its known charge. (b) How does your result compare with the proton mass given in this chapter?

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If someone wanted to build a scale model of the atom with a nucleus 1.00 m in diameter, how far away would the nearest electron need to be?

50 km

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Questions & Answers

Why is the sky blue...?
Star Reply
It's filtered light from the 2 forms of radiation emitted from the sun. It's mainly filtered UV rays. There's a theory titled Scatter Theory that covers this topic
A heating coil of resistance 30π is connected to a 240v supply for 5min to boil a quantity of water in a vessel of heat capacity 200jk. If the initial temperature of water is 20°c and it specific heat capacity is 4200jkgk calculate the mass of water in a vessel
fasawe Reply
A thin equi convex lens is placed on a horizontal plane mirror and a pin held 20 cm vertically above the lens concise in position with its own image the space between the undersurface of d lens and the mirror is filled with water (refractive index =1•33)and then to concise with d image d pin has to
Azummiri Reply
Be raised until its distance from d lens is 27cm find d radius of curvature
what happens when a nuclear bomb and atom bomb bomb explode add the same time near each other
FlAsH Reply
A monkey throws a coconut straight upwards from a coconut tree with a velocity of 10 ms-1. The coconut tree is 30 m high. Calculate the maximum height of the coconut from the top of the coconut tree? Can someone answer my question
Fatinizzah Reply
v2 =u2 - 2gh 02 =10x10 - 2x9.8xh h = 100 ÷ 19.6 answer = 30 - h.
why is the north side is always referring to n side of magnetic
sam Reply
who is a nurse
Chilekwa Reply
A nurse is a person who takes care of the sick
a nurse is also like an assistant to the doctor
explain me wheatstone bridge
Malik Reply
good app
Wheatstone bridge is an instrument used to measure an unknown electrical resistance by balancing two legs of a bridge circuit, one leg of which includes the unknown component.
Rockwell Software is Rockwell Automation’s "Retro Encabulator". Now, basically the only new principle involved is that instead of power being generated by the relative motion of conductors and fluxes, it’s produced by the modial interaction of magneto-reluctance and capacitive diractance. The origin
what refractive index
Adjah Reply
write a comprehensive note on primary colours
Harrison Reply
relationship between refractive index, angle of minimum deviation and angle of prism
Who knows the formula for binding energy,and what each variable or notation stands for?
Agina Reply
1. A black thermocouple measures the temperature in the chamber with black walls.if the air around the thermocouple is 200 C,the walls are at 1000 C,and the heat transfer constant is 15.compute the temperature gradient
Tikiso Reply
what is the relationship between G and g
Olaiya Reply
G is the u. constant, as g stands for grav, accelerate at a discreet point
Is that all about it?
pls explain in details
G is a universal constant
g stands for the gravitational acceleration point. hope this helps you.
balloon TD is at a gravitational acceleration at a specific point
I'm sorry this doesn't take dictation very well.
Can anyone explain the Hooke's law of elasticity?
Olaiya Reply
extension of a spring is proportional to the force applied so long as the force applied does not exceed the springs capacity according to my textbook
does this help?
Yes, thanks
so any solid can be compressed how compressed is dependent upon how much force is applied F=deltaL
sorry, the equation is F=KdeltaL delta is the triangle symbol and L is length so the change in length is proportional to amount of Force applied I believe that is what Hookes law means. anyone catch any mistakes here please correct me :)
I think it is used only for solids and not liquids, isn't it?
basically as long as you dont exceed the elastic limit the object should return to it original form but if you exceed this limit the object will not return to original shape as it will break
Thanks for the explanation
yh, liquids don't apply here, that should be viscosity
hope it helps 😅
also, an object doesnt have to break necessarily, but it will have a new form :)
yeah, I think it is for solids but maybe there is a variation for liquids? that I am not sure of
good luck!
aplease i need a help on spcific latent heat of vibrations
specific latent heat of vaporisation
how many kilometers makes a mile
Margaret Reply
about 1.6 kilometres.
near about 1.67 kilometers
equal to 1.609344 kilometers.
Practice Key Terms 2

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