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To obtain the most precise value of BE from the equation BE= ZM 1 H + Nm n c 2 m A X c 2 size 12{"BE=" left lbrace left [ ital "ZM" left ("" lSup { size 8{1} } H right )+ ital "Nm" rSub { size 8{n} } right ]-m left ("" lSup { size 8{A} } X right ) right rbrace c rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , we should take into account the binding energy of the electrons in the neutral atoms. Will doing this produce a larger or smaller value for BE? Why is this effect usually negligible?

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How does the finite range of the nuclear force relate to the fact that BE / A size 12{ {"BE"} slash {A} } {} is greatest for A size 12{A} {} near 60?

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Problems&Exercises

Data from the appendices and the periodic table may be needed for these problems.

An old campfire is uncovered during an archaeological dig. Its charcoal is found to contain less than 1/1000 the normal amount of 14 C size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"14"} } C} {} . Estimate the minimum age of the charcoal, noting that 2 10 = 1024 size 12{2 rSup { size 8{"10"} } ="1024"} {} .

57,300 y

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A 60 Co size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"60"} } "Co"} {} source is labeled 4.00 mCi, but its present activity is found to be 1 . 85 × 10 7 size 12{1 "." "85" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } } {} Bq. (a) What is the present activity in mCi? (b) How long ago did it actually have a 4.00-mCi activity?

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(a) Calculate the activity R size 12{R} {} in curies of 1.00 g of 226 Ra size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"226"} } "Ra"} {} . (b) Discuss why your answer is not exactly 1.00 Ci, given that the curie was originally supposed to be exactly the activity of a gram of radium.

(a) 0.988 Ci

(b) The half-life of 226 Ra size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"226"} } "Ra"} {} is now better known.

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Show that the activity of the 14 C size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"14"} } C} {} in 1.00 g of 12 C size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"12"} } C} {} found in living tissue is 0.250 Bq.

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Mantles for gas lanterns contain thorium, because it forms an oxide that can survive being heated to incandescence for long periods of time. Natural thorium is almost 100% 232 Th size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"232"} } "Th"} {} , with a half-life of 1 . 405 × 10 10 y size 12{1 "." "405" times "10" rSup { size 8{"10"} } } {} . If an average lantern mantle contains 300 mg of thorium, what is its activity?

1.22 × 10 3 Bq

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Cow’s milk produced near nuclear reactors can be tested for as little as 1.00 pCi of 131 I size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"131"} } I} {} per liter, to check for possible reactor leakage. What mass of 131 I size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"131"} } I} {} has this activity?

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(a) Natural potassium contains 40 K , which has a half-life of 1 . 277 × 10 9 size 12{1 "." "277" times "10" rSup { size 8{9} } } {} y. What mass of 40 K size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"40"} } K} {} in a person would have a decay rate of 4140 Bq? (b) What is the fraction of 40 K size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"40"} } K} {} in natural potassium, given that the person has 140 g in his body? (These numbers are typical for a 70-kg adult.)

(a) 16.0 mg

(b) 0.0114%

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There is more than one isotope of natural uranium. If a researcher isolates 1.00 mg of the relatively scarce 235 U size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"235"} } U} {} and finds this mass to have an activity of 80.0 Bq, what is its half-life in years?

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50 V has one of the longest known radioactive half-lives. In a difficult experiment, a researcher found that the activity of 1.00 kg of 50 V is 1.75 Bq. What is the half-life in years?

1.48 × 10 17 y size 12{ {underline {1 "." "48" times "10" rSup { size 8{"17"} } y}} } {}

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You can sometimes find deep red crystal vases in antique stores, called uranium glass because their color was produced by doping the glass with uranium. Look up the natural isotopes of uranium and their half-lives, and calculate the activity of such a vase assuming it has 2.00 g of uranium in it. Neglect the activity of any daughter nuclides.

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A tree falls in a forest. How many years must pass before the 14 C size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"14"} } C} {} activity in 1.00 g of the tree’s carbon drops to 1.00 decay per hour?

5.6 × 10 4 y size 12{ {underline {5 "." 6 times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } y}} } {}

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What fraction of the 40 K size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"40"} } K} {} that was on Earth when it formed 4 . 5 × 10 9 years ago is left today?

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A 5000-Ci 60 Co source used for cancer therapy is considered too weak to be useful when its activity falls to 3500 Ci. How long after its manufacture does this happen?

2.71 y

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Questions & Answers

Why does earth exert only a tiny downward pull?
Mya Reply
hello
Islam
Why is light bright?
Abraham Reply
what is radioactive element
Attah Reply
an 8.0 capacitor is connected by to the terminals of 60Hz whoes rms voltage is 150v. a.find the capacity reactance and rms to the circuit
Aisha Reply
thanks so much. i undersooth well
Valdes Reply
what is physics
Nwafor Reply
is the study of matter in relation to energy
Kintu
a submersible pump is dropped a borehole and hits the level of water at the bottom of the borehole 5 seconds later.determine the level of water in the borehole
Obrian Reply
what is power?
aron Reply
power P = Work done per second W/ t. It means the more power, the stronger machine
Sphere
e.g. heart Uses 2 W per beat.
Rohit
A spherica, concave shaving mirror has a radius of curvature of 32 cm .what is the magnification of a persons face. when it is 12cm to the left of the vertex of the mirror
Alona Reply
did you solve?
Shii
1.75cm
Ridwan
my name is Abu m.konnek I am a student of a electrical engineer and I want you to help me
Abu
the magnification k = f/(f-d) with focus f = R/2 =16 cm; d =12 cm k = 16/4 =4
Sphere
what do we call velocity
Kings
A weather vane is some sort of directional arrow parallel to the ground that may rotate freely in a horizontal plane. A typical weather vane has a large cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction the arrow is pointing, like a “One Way” street sign. The purpose of the weather vane is to indicate the direction of the wind. As wind blows pa
Kavita Reply
hi
Godfred
what about the wind vane
Godfred
If a prism is fully imersed in water then the ray of light will normally dispersed or their is any difference?
Anurag Reply
the same behavior thru the prism out or in water bud abbot
Ju
If this will experimented with a hollow(vaccum) prism in water then what will be result ?
Anurag
What was the previous far point of a patient who had laser correction that reduced the power of her eye by 7.00 D, producing a normal distant vision power of 50.0 D for her?
Jaydie Reply
What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
Jaydie
What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
Jaydie
A young woman with normal distant vision has a 10.0% ability to accommodate (that is, increase) the power of her eyes. What is the closest object she can see clearly?
Jaydie
29/20 ? maybes
Ju
In what ways does physics affect the society both positively or negatively
Princewill Reply
how can I read physics...am finding it difficult to understand...pls help
rerry Reply
try to read several books on phy don't just rely one. some authors explain better than other.
Ju
And don't forget to check out YouTube videos on the subject. Videos offer a different visual way to learn easier.
Ju
hope that helps
Ju
I have a exam on 12 february
David Reply
what is velocity
Jiti
the speed of something in a given direction.
Ju
Practice Key Terms 8

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics for ap® courses. OpenStax CNX. Nov 04, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11844/1.14
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