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Conceptual questions

[link] shows a cube at rest and a small object heading toward it. (a) Describe the directions (angle θ 1 size 12{θ rSub { size 8{1} } } {} ) at which the small object can emerge after colliding elastically with the cube. How does θ 1 size 12{θ rSub { size 8{1} } } {} depend on b size 12{b} {} , the so-called impact parameter? Ignore any effects that might be due to rotation after the collision, and assume that the cube is much more massive than the small object. (b) Answer the same questions if the small object instead collides with a massive sphere.

A ball m one moves horizontally to the right with speed v one. It will collide with a stationary square labeled capital m two that is rotated at approximately forty-five degrees. The point of impact is on a face of the square a distance b above the center of the square. After the collision the ball is shown heading off at an angle theta one above the horizontal with a speed v one prime. The square remains essentially stationary (v 2 prime is approximately zero).
A small object approaches a collision with a much more massive cube, after which its velocity has the direction θ 1 size 12{θ rSub { size 8{1} } } {} . The angles at which the small object can be scattered are determined by the shape of the object it strikes and the impact parameter b size 12{b} {} .
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Problems&Exercises

Two identical pucks collide on an air hockey table. One puck was originally at rest. (a) If the incoming puck has a speed of 6.00 m/s and scatters to an angle of 30 . ,what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the second puck? (You may use the result that θ 1 θ 2 = 90º for elastic collisions of objects that have identical masses.) (b) Confirm that the collision is elastic.

(a) 3.00 m/s, 60º below x size 12{x} {} -axis

(b) Find speed of first puck after collision: 0 = m v 1 sin 30º m v 2 sin 60º v 1 = v 2 sin 60º sin 30º = 5.196 m/s

Verify that ratio of initial to final KE equals one: KE = 1 2 mv 1 2 = 18 m J KE = 1 2 mv 1 2 + 1 2 mv 2 2 = 18 m J KE KE′ = 1.00

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Confirm that the results of the example [link] do conserve momentum in both the x size 12{x} {} - and y size 12{y} {} -directions.

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A 3000-kg cannon is mounted so that it can recoil only in the horizontal direction. (a) Calculate its recoil velocity when it fires a 15.0-kg shell at 480 m/s at an angle of 20 . size 12{"20" "." 0°} {} above the horizontal. (b) What is the kinetic energy of the cannon? This energy is dissipated as heat transfer in shock absorbers that stop its recoil. (c) What happens to the vertical component of momentum that is imparted to the cannon when it is fired?

(a) 2 . 26 m/s size 12{ - 2 "." "26"`"m/s"} {}

(b) 7 . 63 × 10 3 J size 12{7 "." "63" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `J} {}

(c) The ground will exert a normal force to oppose recoil of the cannon in the vertical direction. The momentum in the vertical direction is transferred to the earth. The energy is transferred into the ground, making a dent where the cannon is. After long barrages, cannon have erratic aim because the ground is full of divots.

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Professional Application

A 5.50-kg bowling ball moving at 9.00 m/s collides with a 0.850-kg bowling pin, which is scattered at an angle of 85 . size 12{"85" "." 0°} {} to the initial direction of the bowling ball and with a speed of 15.0 m/s. (a) Calculate the final velocity (magnitude and direction) of the bowling ball. (b) Is the collision elastic? (c) Linear kinetic energy is greater after the collision. Discuss how spin on the ball might be converted to linear kinetic energy in the collision.

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Professional Application

Ernest Rutherford (the first New Zealander to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry) demonstrated that nuclei were very small and dense by scattering helium-4 nuclei ( 4 He ) from gold-197 nuclei ( 197 Au ) . The energy of the incoming helium nucleus was 8.00 × 10 13 J , and the masses of the helium and gold nuclei were 6.68 × 10 27 kg and 3.29 × 10 25 kg , respectively (note that their mass ratio is 4 to 197). (a) If a helium nucleus scatters to an angle of 120º during an elastic collision with a gold nucleus, calculate the helium nucleus’s final speed and the final velocity (magnitude and direction) of the gold nucleus. (b) What is the final kinetic energy of the helium nucleus?

(a) 5 . 36 × 10 5 m/s at 29.5º

(b) 7 . 52 × 10 13 J size 12{7 "." "52" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "13"} } `J} {}

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Professional Application

Two cars collide at an icy intersection and stick together afterward. The first car has a mass of 1200 kg and is approaching at 8 . 00 m/s size 12{8 "." "00"`"m/s"} {} due south. The second car has a mass of 850 kg and is approaching at 17 . 0 m/s size 12{"17" "." 0`"m/s"} {} due west. (a) Calculate the final velocity (magnitude and direction) of the cars. (b) How much kinetic energy is lost in the collision? (This energy goes into deformation of the cars.) Note that because both cars have an initial velocity, you cannot use the equations for conservation of momentum along the x size 12{x} {} -axis and y size 12{y} {} -axis; instead, you must look for other simplifying aspects.

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Starting with equations m 1 v 1 = m 1 v 1 cos θ 1 + m 2 v 2 cos θ 2 and 0 = m 1 v 1 sin θ 1 + m 2 v 2 sin θ 2 for conservation of momentum in the x - and y -directions and assuming that one object is originally stationary, prove that for an elastic collision of two objects of equal masses,

1 2 mv 1 2 = 1 2 mv 1 2 + 1 2 mv 2 2 + mv 1 v 2 cos θ 1 θ 2

as discussed in the text.

We are given that m 1 = m 2 m size 12{m rSub { size 8{1} } =m rSub { size 8{2} } equiv m} {} . The given equations then become:

v 1 = v 1 cos θ 1 + v 2 cos θ 2

and

0 = v 1 sin θ 1 + v 2 sin θ 2 .

Square each equation to get

v 1 2 = v 1 2 cos 2 θ 1 + v 2 2 cos 2 θ 2 + 2 v 1 v 2 cos θ 1 cos θ 2 0 = v 1 2 sin 2 θ 1 + v 2 2 sin 2 θ 2 + 2 v 1 v 2 sin θ 1 sin θ 2 .

Add these two equations and simplify:

v 1 2 = v 1 2 + v 2 2 + 2 v 1 v 2 cos θ 1 cos θ 2 + sin θ 1 sin θ 2 = v 1 2 + v 2 2 + 2 v 1 v 2 1 2 cos θ 1 θ 2 + 1 2 cos θ 1 + θ 2 + 1 2 cos θ 1 θ 2 1 2 cos θ 1 + θ 2 = v 1 2 + v 2 2 + 2 v 1 v 2 cos θ 1 θ 2 .

Multiply the entire equation by 1 2 m size 12{ { { size 8{1} } over { size 8{2} } } m} {} to recover the kinetic energy:

1 2 mv 1 2 = 1 2 m v 1 2 + 1 2 m v 2 2 + m v 1 v 2 cos θ 1 θ 2

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Integrated Concepts

A 90.0-kg ice hockey player hits a 0.150-kg puck, giving the puck a velocity of 45.0 m/s. If both are initially at rest and if the ice is frictionless, how far does the player recoil in the time it takes the puck to reach the goal 15.0 m away?

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Questions & Answers

how vapour pressure of a liquid lost through convection
Yomzi Reply
Roofs are sometimes pushed off vertically during a tropical cyclone, and buildings sometimes explode outward when hit by a tornado. Use Bernoulli’s principle to explain these phenomena.
Aliraza Reply
Plz answer the question ☝️☝️
Aliraza
what's the basic si unit of acceleration
ELLOIN Reply
Explain why the change in velocity is different in the two frames, whereas the change in kinetic energy is the same in both.
Fabian Reply
Insulators (nonmetals) have a higher BE than metals, and it is more difficult for photons to eject electrons from insulators. Discuss how this relates to the free charges in metals that make them good conductors.
Muhammad Reply
Is the photoelectric effect a direct consequence of the wave character of EM radiation or of the particle character of EM radiation? Explain briefly.
Muhammad
Determine the total force and the absolute pressure on the bottom of a swimming pool 28.0m by 8.5m whose uniform depth is 1 .8m.
Henny Reply
how solve this problem?
Foday
P(pressure)=density ×depth×acceleration due to gravity Force =P×Area(28.0x8.5)
Fomukom
for the answer to complete, the units need specified why
muqaddas Reply
That's just how the AP grades. Otherwise, you could be talking about m/s when the answer requires m/s^2. They need to know what you are referring to.
Kyle
Suppose a speck of dust in an electrostatic precipitator has 1.0000×1012 protons in it and has a net charge of –5.00 nC (a very large charge for a small speck). How many electrons does it have?
Alexia Reply
how would I work this problem
Alexia
how can you have not an integer number of protons? If, on the other hand it supposed to be 1e12, then 1.6e-19C/proton • 1e12 protons=1.6e-7 C is the charge of the protons in the speck, so the difference between this and 5e-9C is made up by electrons
Igor
what is angular velocity
Obaapa Reply
angular velocity can be defined as the rate of change in radian over seconds.
Fidelis
Why does earth exert only a tiny downward pull?
Mya Reply
hello
Islam
Why is light bright?
Abraham Reply
what is radioactive element
Attah Reply
an 8.0 capacitor is connected by to the terminals of 60Hz whoes rms voltage is 150v. a.find the capacity reactance and rms to the circuit
Aisha Reply
thanks so much. i undersooth well
Valdes Reply
what is physics
Nwafor Reply
is the study of matter in relation to energy
Kintu
physics can be defined as the natural science that deals with the study of motion through space,time along with its related concepts which are energy and force
Fidelis
Practice Key Terms 1

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics for ap® courses. OpenStax CNX. Nov 04, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11844/1.14
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