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  • Describe the mysteries of atomic spectra.
  • Explain Bohr’s theory of the hydrogen atom.
  • Explain Bohr’s planetary model of the atom.
  • Illustrate energy state using the energy-level diagram.
  • Describe the triumphs and limits of Bohr’s theory.

The great Danish physicist Niels Bohr (1885–1962) made immediate use of Rutherford’s planetary model of the atom. ( [link] ). Bohr became convinced of its validity and spent part of 1912 at Rutherford’s laboratory. In 1913, after returning to Copenhagen, he began publishing his theory of the simplest atom, hydrogen, based on the planetary model of the atom. For decades, many questions had been asked about atomic characteristics. From their sizes to their spectra, much was known about atoms, but little had been explained in terms of the laws of physics. Bohr’s theory explained the atomic spectrum of hydrogen and established new and broadly applicable principles in quantum mechanics.

A photograph of Niels Bohr.
Niels Bohr, Danish physicist, used the planetary model of the atom to explain the atomic spectrum and size of the hydrogen atom. His many contributions to the development of atomic physics and quantum mechanics, his personal influence on many students and colleagues, and his personal integrity, especially in the face of Nazi oppression, earned him a prominent place in history. (credit: Unknown Author, via Wikimedia Commons)

Mysteries of atomic spectra

As noted in Quantization of Energy , the energies of some small systems are quantized. Atomic and molecular emission and absorption spectra have been known for over a century to be discrete (or quantized). (See [link] .) Maxwell and others had realized that there must be a connection between the spectrum of an atom and its structure, something like the resonant frequencies of musical instruments. But, in spite of years of efforts by many great minds, no one had a workable theory. (It was a running joke that any theory of atomic and molecular spectra could be destroyed by throwing a book of data at it, so complex were the spectra.) Following Einstein’s proposal of photons with quantized energies directly proportional to their wavelengths, it became even more evident that electrons in atoms can exist only in discrete orbits.

This figure has two parts. Part a shows a discharge tube at the extreme left. Light from the discharge tube passes through a rectangular slit and a grating, going from left to right. From the grating, light of different colors falls on a photographic film. Part b of the figure shows the emission line spectrum for iron.
Part (a) shows, from left to right, a discharge tube, slit, and diffraction grating producing a line spectrum. Part (b) shows the emission line spectrum for iron. The discrete lines imply quantized energy states for the atoms that produce them. The line spectrum for each element is unique, providing a powerful and much used analytical tool, and many line spectra were well known for many years before they could be explained with physics. (credit for (b): Yttrium91, Wikimedia Commons)

In some cases, it had been possible to devise formulas that described the emission spectra. As you might expect, the simplest atom—hydrogen, with its single electron—has a relatively simple spectrum. The hydrogen spectrum had been observed in the infrared (IR), visible, and ultraviolet (UV), and several series of spectral lines had been observed. (See [link] .) These series are named after early researchers who studied them in particular depth.

Questions & Answers

why static friction is greater than Kinetic friction
Ali Reply
draw magnetic field pattern for two wire carrying current in the same direction
Ven Reply
An American traveler in New Zealand carries a transformer to convert New Zealand’s standard 240 V to 120 V so that she can use some small appliances on her trip.
nkombo Reply
What is the ratio of turns in the primary and secondary coils of her transformer?
nkombo
How electric lines and equipotential surface are mutually perpendicular?
Abid Reply
The potential difference between any two points on the surface is zero that implies È.Ŕ=0, Where R is the distance between two different points &E= Electric field intensity. From which we have cos þ =0, where þ is the angle between the directions of field and distance line, as E andR are zero. Thus
MAHADEV
sorry..E and R are non zero...
MAHADEV
By how much leeway (both percentage and mass) would you have in the selection of the mass of the object in the previous problem if you did not wish the new period to be greater than 2.01 s or less than 1.99 s?
Elene Reply
what Is linear momentum
Victoria Reply
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where
Fayyaz
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Pyae
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Iroko
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Abdu
Describe an experiment to determine short half life
Tyson Reply
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Kenedy Reply
it's a natural phenomena
Hassan
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Emmanuel
please can someone help me with explanations of wave
Benedine
A 20MH coil has a resistance of 50 ohms and us connected in series with a capacitor to a 520MV supply
Musa Reply
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Caya Reply
it is the science which we used in our daily life
Sujitha
Physics is the branch of science that deals with the study of matter and the interactions it undergoes with energy
Junior
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AMIT
A 20MH coil has a resistance of 50 ohms and is connected in series with a capacitor to a 250MV supply if the circuit is to resonate at 100KHZ, Determine 1: the capacitance of the capacitor 2: the working voltage of the circuit, given that pie =3.142
Musa
Physics is the branch of science that deals with the study of matter and the interactions it undergoes with energy
Kelly
Heat is transfered by thermal contact but if it is transfered by conduction or radiation, is it possible to reach in thermal equilibrium?
Eden Reply
Yes, It is possible by conduction if Surface is Adiabatic
Astronomy
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Kelly
what are the fundamentals qualities
Magret Reply
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Kalilu
what is physic
Kalilu
Physics? Is a branch of science dealing with matter in relation to energy.
Moses
Physic... Is a purging medicine, which stimulates evacuation of the bowels.
Moses
are you asking for qualities or quantities?
Noman
give examples of three dimensional frame of reference
Ekwunazor Reply
Universe
Noman
Yes the Universe itself
Astronomy
Examine different types of shoes, including sports shoes and thongs. In terms of physics, why are the bottom surfaces designed as they are? What differences will dry and wet conditions make for these surfaces?
Lathan Reply
sports shoes are designed in such a way they are gripped well with your feet and their bases have and high friction surfaces, Thong shoes are for comfort, these are easily removed and light weight. these are usually low friction surfaces but in wet conditions they offer greater friction.
Noman
thong sleepers are usually used in restrooms.
Noman
Practice Key Terms 7

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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