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Learning objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Understand the rules of vector addition, subtraction, and multiplication.
  • Apply graphical methods of vector addition and subtraction to determine the displacement of moving objects.

The information presented in this section supports the following AP® learning objectives and science practices:

  • 3.A.1.1 The student is able to express the motion of an object using narrative, mathematical, and graphical representations. (S.P. 1.5, 2.1, 2.2)
  • 3.A.1.3 The student is able to analyze experimental data describing the motion of an object and is able to express the results of the analysis using narrative, mathematical, and graphical representations. (S.P. 5.1)
Some Hawaiian Islands like Kauai Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, Kahoolawe, and Hawaii are shown. On the scale map of Hawaiian Islands the path of a journey is shown moving from Hawaii to Molokai. The path of the journey is turning at different angles and finally reaching its destination. The displacement of the journey is shown with the help of a straight line connecting its starting point and the destination.
Displacement can be determined graphically using a scale map, such as this one of the Hawaiian Islands. A journey from Hawai'i to Moloka'i has a number of legs, or journey segments. These segments can be added graphically with a ruler to determine the total two-dimensional displacement of the journey. (credit: US Geological Survey)

Vectors in two dimensions

A vector    is a quantity that has magnitude and direction. Displacement, velocity, acceleration, and force, for example, are all vectors. In one-dimensional, or straight-line, motion, the direction of a vector can be given simply by a plus or minus sign. In two dimensions (2-d), however, we specify the direction of a vector relative to some reference frame (i.e., coordinate system), using an arrow having length proportional to the vector's magnitude and pointing in the direction of the vector.

[link] shows such a graphical representation of a vector , using as an example the total displacement for the person walking in a city considered in Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction . We shall use the notation that a boldface symbol, such as D size 12{D} {} , stands for a vector. Its magnitude is represented by the symbol in italics, D size 12{D} {} , and its direction by θ size 12{θ} {} .

Vectors in this text

In this text, we will represent a vector with a boldface variable. For example, we will represent the quantity force with the vector F size 12{F} {} , which has both magnitude and direction. The magnitude of the vector will be represented by a variable in italics, such as F size 12{F} {} , and the direction of the variable will be given by an angle θ size 12{θ} {} .

A graph is shown. On the axes the scale is set to one block is equal to one unit. A helicopter starts moving from the origin at an angle of twenty nine point one degrees above the x axis. The current position of the helicopter is ten point three blocks along its line of motion. The destination of the helicopter is the point which is nine blocks in the positive x direction and five blocks in the positive y direction. The positive direction of the x axis is east and the positive direction of the y axis is north.
A person walks 9 blocks east and 5 blocks north. The displacement is 10.3 blocks at an angle 29 .1° size 12{"29" "." "1°"} {} north of east.
On a graph a vector is shown. It is inclined at an angle theta equal to twenty nine point one degrees above the positive x axis. A protractor is shown to the right of the x axis to measure the angle. A ruler is also shown parallel to the vector to measure its length. The ruler shows that the length of the vector is ten point three units.
To describe the resultant vector for the person walking in a city considered in [link] graphically, draw an arrow to represent the total displacement vector D size 12{D} {} . Using a protractor, draw a line at an angle θ size 12{θ} {} relative to the east-west axis. The length D size 12{D} {} of the arrow is proportional to the vector's magnitude and is measured along the line with a ruler. In this example, the magnitude D size 12{D} {} of the vector is 10.3 units, and the direction θ size 12{θ} {} is 29.1° size 12{"29" "." 1 rSup { size 12{°} } } {} north of east.

Vector addition: head-to-tail method

The head-to-tail method    is a graphical way to add vectors, described in [link] below and in the steps following. The tail    of the vector is the starting point of the vector, and the head (or tip) of a vector is the final, pointed end of the arrow.

Questions & Answers

what is angular velocity
Obaapa Reply
Why does earth exert only a tiny downward pull?
Mya Reply
hello
Islam
Why is light bright?
Abraham Reply
what is radioactive element
Attah Reply
an 8.0 capacitor is connected by to the terminals of 60Hz whoes rms voltage is 150v. a.find the capacity reactance and rms to the circuit
Aisha Reply
thanks so much. i undersooth well
Valdes Reply
what is physics
Nwafor Reply
is the study of matter in relation to energy
Kintu
a submersible pump is dropped a borehole and hits the level of water at the bottom of the borehole 5 seconds later.determine the level of water in the borehole
Obrian Reply
what is power?
aron Reply
power P = Work done per second W/ t. It means the more power, the stronger machine
Sphere
e.g. heart Uses 2 W per beat.
Rohit
A spherica, concave shaving mirror has a radius of curvature of 32 cm .what is the magnification of a persons face. when it is 12cm to the left of the vertex of the mirror
Alona Reply
did you solve?
Shii
1.75cm
Ridwan
my name is Abu m.konnek I am a student of a electrical engineer and I want you to help me
Abu
the magnification k = f/(f-d) with focus f = R/2 =16 cm; d =12 cm k = 16/4 =4
Sphere
what do we call velocity
Kings
A weather vane is some sort of directional arrow parallel to the ground that may rotate freely in a horizontal plane. A typical weather vane has a large cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction the arrow is pointing, like a “One Way” street sign. The purpose of the weather vane is to indicate the direction of the wind. As wind blows pa
Kavita Reply
hi
Godfred
what about the wind vane
Godfred
If a prism is fully imersed in water then the ray of light will normally dispersed or their is any difference?
Anurag Reply
the same behavior thru the prism out or in water bud abbot
Ju
If this will experimented with a hollow(vaccum) prism in water then what will be result ?
Anurag
What was the previous far point of a patient who had laser correction that reduced the power of her eye by 7.00 D, producing a normal distant vision power of 50.0 D for her?
Jaydie Reply
What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
Jaydie
What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
Jaydie
A young woman with normal distant vision has a 10.0% ability to accommodate (that is, increase) the power of her eyes. What is the closest object she can see clearly?
Jaydie
29/20 ? maybes
Ju
In what ways does physics affect the society both positively or negatively
Princewill Reply
how can I read physics...am finding it difficult to understand...pls help
rerry Reply
try to read several books on phy don't just rely one. some authors explain better than other.
Ju
And don't forget to check out YouTube videos on the subject. Videos offer a different visual way to learn easier.
Ju
hope that helps
Ju

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics for ap® courses. OpenStax CNX. Nov 04, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11844/1.14
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