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Another example of thermal stress is found in the mouth. Dental fillings can expand differently from tooth enamel. It can give pain when eating ice cream or having a hot drink. Cracks might occur in the filling. Metal fillings (gold, silver, etc.) are being replaced by composite fillings (porcelain), which have smaller coefficients of expansion, and are closer to those of teeth.

Two blocks, A and B, are made of the same material. Block A has dimensions l × w × h = L × 2 L × L size 12{l times w times h=L times 2L times L} {} and Block B has dimensions 2 L × 2 L × 2 L size 12{2L times 2L times 2L} {} . If the temperature changes, what is (a) the change in the volume of the two blocks, (b) the change in the cross-sectional area l × w size 12{l times w} {} , and (c) the change in the height h size 12{h} {} of the two blocks?

There are two rectangular blocks. Block A has its dimensions labeled length equals L, width equals two times L, height equals L. Block B has its dimensions labeled length, width, and height all equal to two times L.

(a) The change in volume is proportional to the original volume. Block A has a volume of L × 2 L × L = 2 L 3 . size 12{L´2L´L=2L rSup { size 8{3} } "." } {} . Block B has a volume of 2 L × 2 L × 2 L = 8 L 3 , size 12{2L´2L´2L=8L rSup { size 8{3} } ,} {} which is 4 times that of Block A. Thus the change in volume of Block B should be 4 times the change in volume of Block A.

(b) The change in area is proportional to the area. The cross-sectional area of Block A is L × 2 L = 2 L 2 , size 12{L´2L=2L rSup { size 8{2} } ,} {} while that of Block B is 2 L × 2 L = 4 L 2 . size 12{2L´2L=4L rSup { size 8{2} } "." } {} Because cross-sectional area of Block B is twice that of Block A, the change in the cross-sectional area of Block B is twice that of Block A.

(c) The change in height is proportional to the original height. Because the original height of Block B is twice that of A, the change in the height of Block B is twice that of Block A.

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Section summary

  • Thermal expansion is the increase, or decrease, of the size (length, area, or volume) of a body due to a change in temperature.
  • Thermal expansion is large for gases, and relatively small, but not negligible, for liquids and solids.
  • Linear thermal expansion is
    Δ L = αL Δ T , size 12{ΔL=αLΔT} {}
    where Δ L size 12{ΔL} {} is the change in length L size 12{L} {} , Δ T size 12{ΔT} {} is the change in temperature, and α size 12{α} {} is the coefficient of linear expansion, which varies slightly with temperature.
  • The change in area due to thermal expansion is
    Δ A = 2 αA Δ T , size 12{ΔA=2αAΔT} {}
    where Δ A size 12{ΔA} {} is the change in area.
  • The change in volume due to thermal expansion is
    Δ V = βV Δ T , size 12{ΔV=βVΔT} {}
    where β size 12{β} {} is the coefficient of volume expansion and β size 12{β approx 3α} {} . Thermal stress is created when thermal expansion is constrained.

Conceptual questions

Thermal stresses caused by uneven cooling can easily break glass cookware. Explain why Pyrex®, a glass with a small coefficient of linear expansion, is less susceptible.

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Water expands significantly when it freezes: a volume increase of about 9% occurs. As a result of this expansion and because of the formation and growth of crystals as water freezes, anywhere from 10% to 30% of biological cells are burst when animal or plant material is frozen. Discuss the implications of this cell damage for the prospect of preserving human bodies by freezing so that they can be thawed at some future date when it is hoped that all diseases are curable.

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One method of getting a tight fit, say of a metal peg in a hole in a metal block, is to manufacture the peg slightly larger than the hole. The peg is then inserted when at a different temperature than the block. Should the block be hotter or colder than the peg during insertion? Explain your answer.

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Questions & Answers

what is heat
Ojo Reply
heat is the transfer of internal energy from one point to another
HENRY
what is a wave
Williams Reply
wave means. A field of study
aondohemba
what are Atoms
aondohemba
is the movement back and front or up and down
sani
how ?
aondohemba
wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space with little or no associated mass.
lots
A wave is a motion of particles in disturbed medium that carry energy from one midium to another
conist
an atom is the smallest unit( particle) of an element that bares it's chemical properties
conist
what is electromagnetic induction?
conist
How is the de Broglie wavelength of electrons related to the quantization of their orbits in atoms and molecules?
Larissa Reply
How do you convert 0.0045kgcm³ to the si unit?
EDYKING Reply
how many state of matter do we really have like I mean... is there any newly discovered state of matter?
Falana Reply
I only know 5: •Solids •Liquids •Gases •Plasma •Bose-Einstein condensate
Thapelo
Alright Thank you
Falana
Which one is the Bose-Einstein
James
can you explain what plasma and the I her one you mentioned
Olatunde
u can say sun or stars are just the state of plasma
Mohit
but the are more than seven
Issa
list it out I wanna know
Cristal
what the meaning of continuum
Akhigbe Reply
What state of matter is fire
Thapelo Reply
fire is not in any state of matter...fire is rather a form of energy produced from an oxidising reaction.
Xenda
Isn`t fire the plasma state of matter?
Walter
all this while I taught it was plasma
Victor
How can you define time?
Thapelo Reply
Time can be defined as a continuous , dynamic , irreversible , unpredictable quantity .
Tanaya
unpredictable? but I can say after one o'clock its going to be two o'clock predictably!
Victor
how can we define vector
mahmud
I would define it as having a magnitude (size)with a direction. An example I can think of is a car traveling at 50m/s (magnitude) going North (direction)
Hanzo
as for me guys u would say time is quantity that measures how long it takes for a specific condition to happen e.g how long it takes for the day to end or how it takes for the travelling car to cover a km.
conist
what is the relativity of physics
Paul Reply
How do you convert 0.0045kgcm³ to the si unit?
flint
What is the formula for motion
Anthony Reply
V=u+at V²=u²-2as
flint
S=ut+½at
flint
they are eqns of linear motion
King
S=Vt
Thapelo
v=u+at s=ut+at^\2 v^=u^+2as where ^=2
King
hi
Mehadi
hello
King
Explain dopplers effect
Jennifer Reply
Not yet learnt
Bob
Explain motion with types
Bob
Acceleration is the change in velocity over time. Given this information, is acceleration a vector or a scalar quantity? Explain.
Alabi Reply
Scalar quantity Because acceleration has only magnitude
Bob
acleration is vectr quatity it is found in a spefied direction and it is product of displcemnt
bhat
its a scalar quantity
Paul
velocity is speed and direction. since velocity is a part of acceleration that makes acceleration a vector quantity. an example of this is centripetal acceleration. when you're moving in a circular patter at a constant speed, you are still accelerating because your direction is constantly changing.
Josh
acceleration is a vector quantity. As explained by Josh Thompson, even in circular motion, bodies undergoing circular motion only accelerate because on the constantly changing direction of their constant speed. also retardation and acceleration are differentiated by virtue of their direction in
fitzgerald
respect to prevailing force
fitzgerald
What is the difference between impulse and momentum?
Manyo
Momentum is the product of the mass of a body and the change in velocity of its motion. ie P=m(v-u)/t (SI unit is kgm/s). it is literally the impact of collision from a moving body. While Impulse is the product of momentum and time. I = Pt (SI unit is kgm) or it is literally the change in momentum
fitzgerald
Or I = m(v-u)
fitzgerald
the tendency of a body to maintain it's inertia motion is called momentum( I believe you know what inertia means) so for a body to be in momentum it will be really hard to stop such body or object..... this is where impulse comes in.. the force applied to stop the momentum of such body is impulse..
Pelumi
Calculation of kinetic and potential energy
dion Reply
K.e=mv² P.e=mgh
Malia
K is actually 1/2 mv^2
Josh
what impulse is given to an a-particle of mass 6.7*10^-27 kg if it is ejected from a stationary nucleus at a speed of 3.2*10^-6ms²? what average force is needed if it is ejected in approximately 10^-8 s?
John
speed=velocity÷time velocity=speed×time=3.2×10^-6×10^-8=32×10^-14m/s impulse [I]=∆momentum[P]=mass×velocity=6.7×10^-27×32×10^-14=214.4×10^-41kg/ms force=impulse÷time=214.4×10^-41÷10^-8=214.4×10^-33N. dats how I solved it.if wrong pls correct me.
Melody
what is sound wave
Nworu Reply
sound wave is a mechanical longitudinal wave that transfers energy from one point to another
Ogor
its a longitudnal wave which is associted wth compresion nad rearfractions
bhat
what is power
PROMISE Reply
it's also a capability to do something or act in a particular way.
Kayode
Newton laws of motion
Mike
power also known as the rate of ability to do work
Slim
power means capabilty to do work p=w/t its unit is watt or j/s it also represents how much work is done fr evry second
bhat
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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