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Conceptual questions

Explain why a building made of bricks has smaller entropy than the same bricks in a disorganized pile. Do this by considering the number of ways that each could be formed (the number of microstates in each macrostate).

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Problem exercises

Using [link] , verify the contention that if you toss 100 coins each second, you can expect to get 100 heads or 100 tails once in 2 × 10 22 size 12{2´"10" rSup { size 8{"22"} } } {} years; calculate the time to two-digit accuracy.

It should happen twice in every 1.27 × 10 30 s or once in every 6.35 × 10 29 s ( 6.35 × 10 29 s ) ( 1 h 3600 s ) ( 1 d 24 h ) ( 1 y 365.25 d ) = 2.0 × 10 22 y

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What percent of the time will you get something in the range from 60 heads and 40 tails through 40 heads and 60 tails when tossing 100 coins? The total number of microstates in that range is 1 . 22 × 10 30 size 12{1 "." "22"´"10" rSup { size 8{"30"} } } {} . (Consult [link] .)

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(a) If tossing 100 coins, how many ways (microstates) are there to get the three most likely macrostates of 49 heads and 51 tails, 50 heads and 50 tails, and 51 heads and 49 tails? (b) What percent of the total possibilities is this? (Consult [link] .)

(a) 3 . 0 × 10 29 size 12{3 "." 0 times "10" rSup { size 8{"29"} } } {}

(b) 24%

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(a) What is the change in entropy if you start with 100 coins in the 45 heads and 55 tails macrostate, toss them, and get 51 heads and 49 tails? (b) What if you get 75 heads and 25 tails? (c) How much more likely is 51 heads and 49 tails than 75 heads and 25 tails? (d) Does either outcome violate the second law of thermodynamics?

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(a) What is the change in entropy if you start with 10 coins in the 5 heads and 5 tails macrostate, toss them, and get 2 heads and 8 tails? (b) How much more likely is 5 heads and 5 tails than 2 heads and 8 tails? (Take the ratio of the number of microstates to find out.) (c) If you were betting on 2 heads and 8 tails would you accept odds of 252 to 45? Explain why or why not.

(a) - 2 . 38 × 10 23 J/K size 12{ +- 2 "." "38"´"10" rSup { size 8{ +- "23"} } " J/K"} {}

(b) 5.6 times more likely

(c) If you were betting on two heads and 8 tails, the odds of breaking even are 252 to 45, so on average you would break even. So, no, you wouldn’t bet on odds of 252 to 45.

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10-coin toss
Macrostate Number of Microstates ( W )
Heads Tails
10 0 1
9 1 10
8 2 45
7 3 120
6 4 210
5 5 252
4 6 210
3 7 120
2 8 45
1 9 10
0 10 1
Total: 1024

(a) If you toss 10 coins, what percent of the time will you get the three most likely macrostates (6 heads and 4 tails, 5 heads and 5 tails, 4 heads and 6 tails)? (b) You can realistically toss 10 coins and count the number of heads and tails about twice a minute. At that rate, how long will it take on average to get either 10 heads and 0 tails or 0 heads and 10 tails?

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(a) Construct a table showing the macrostates and all of the individual microstates for tossing 6 coins. (Use [link] as a guide.) (b) How many macrostates are there? (c) What is the total number of microstates? (d) What percent chance is there of tossing 5 heads and 1 tail? (e) How much more likely are you to toss 3 heads and 3 tails than 5 heads and 1 tail? (Take the ratio of the number of microstates to find out.)

(b) 7

(c) 64

(d) 9.38%

(e) 3.33 times more likely (20 to 6)

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In an air conditioner, 12.65 MJ of heat transfer occurs from a cold environment in 1.00 h. (a) What mass of ice melting would involve the same heat transfer? (b) How many hours of operation would be equivalent to melting 900 kg of ice? (c) If ice costs 20 cents per kg, do you think the air conditioner could be operated more cheaply than by simply using ice? Describe in detail how you evaluate the relative costs.

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Questions & Answers

what happens when an unstoppable force collides an immovable object?
Mavis Reply
a radioactive nuclei of mass 6.0g has a half life of 8days. calculate during which 5.25g of the nuclei would have decay
Calculate the Newton's the weight of a 2.5 Kilogram of melon. What is its weight in pound?
Rialyn Reply
calculate the tension of the cable when a buoy with 0.5m and mass of 20kg
Iga Reply
what is displacement
Nyamza Reply
it's the time rate of change of distance
distance in a given direction is diplacement
Distance in a spacified direction
you shouldn't say distance,displacement and distance are two different things .distance can be lopped curved but displacement is always in a straight line so you can't use distance to define it. displacement is the change of position in a specified direction.
Well stayed josh👍
thank you gift.
well explained
what is the meaning of physics
Alausa Reply
to study objects in motion and how they interact or take part in the natural phenomenon of the universe.
an object that has a small mass and an object has a large mase have the same momentum which has high kinetic energy
Faith Reply
The with smaller mass
Since you said they have the same momentum.. So meaning that there is more like an inverse proportionality in the quantities used to find the momentum. We are told that the the is a larger mass and a smaller mass., so we can conclude that the smaller mass had higher velocity as compared to other one
Mathamaticaly correct
Mathmaticaly correct :)
I have proven it by using my own values
Larger mass=4g Smaller mass=2g Momentum of both=8 Meaning V for L =2 and V for S=4 Now find there kinetic energies using the data presented
grateful soul...thanks alot
2 stones are thrown vertically upward from the ground, one with 3 times the initial speed of the other. If the faster stone takes 10 s to return to the ground, how long will it take the slower stone to return? If the slower stone reaches a maximum height of H, how high will the faster stone go
Julliene Reply
how can i calculate it's height
is speed the same as velocity
Faith Reply
in a question i ought to find the momentum but was given just mass and speed
just multiply mass and speed then you have the magnitude of momentem
Consider speed to be velocity
it worked our . . thanks
Distinguish between semi conductor and extrinsic conductors
Okame Reply
Suppose that a grandfather clock is running slowly; that is, the time it takes to complete each cycle is longer than it should be. Should you (@) shorten or (b) lengthen the pendulam to make the clock keep attain the preferred time?
Aj Reply
I think you shorten am not sure
shorten it, since that is practice able using the simple pendulum as experiment
it'll always give the results needed no need to adjust the length, it is always measured by the starting time and ending time by the clock
it's not in relation to other clocks
wat is d formular for newton's third principle
shorten the pendulum string because the difference in length affects the time of oscillation.if short , the time taken will be adjusted.but if long ,the time taken will be twice the previous cycle.
discuss under damped
Prince Reply
resistance of thermometer in relation to temperature
Ifeanyi Reply
that resistance is not measured yet, it may be probably in the next generation of scientists
Is fundamental quantities under physical quantities?
Igwe Reply
please I didn't not understand the concept of the physical therapy
John Reply
physiotherapy - it's a practice of exercising for healthy living.
what chapter is this?
this is not in this book, it's from other experiences.
am new in the group
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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