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## Problem-solving strategies for the methods of heat transfer

1. Examine the situation to determine what type of heat transfer is involved.
2. Identify the type(s) of heat transfer—conduction, convection, or radiation.
3. Identify exactly what needs to be determined in the problem (identify the unknowns). A written list is very useful.
4. Make a list of what is given or can be inferred from the problem as stated (identify the knowns).
5. Solve the appropriate equation for the quantity to be determined (the unknown).
6. For conduction, equation $\frac{Q}{t}=\frac{\text{kA}\left({T}_{2}-{T}_{1}\right)}{d}$ is appropriate. [link] lists thermal conductivities. For convection, determine the amount of matter moved and use equation $Q=\text{mc}\text{Δ}T$ , to calculate the heat transfer involved in the temperature change of the fluid. If a phase change accompanies convection, equation $Q={\text{mL}}_{\text{f}}$ or $Q={\text{mL}}_{\text{v}}$ is appropriate to find the heat transfer involved in the phase change. [link] lists information relevant to phase change. For radiation, equation $\frac{{Q}_{\text{net}}}{t}=\sigma eA\left({T}_{2}^{4}-{T}_{1}^{4}\right)$ gives the net heat transfer rate.
7. Insert the knowns along with their units into the appropriate equation and obtain numerical solutions complete with units.
8. Check the answer to see if it is reasonable. Does it make sense?

## Summary

• Radiation is the rate of heat transfer through the emission or absorption of electromagnetic waves.
• The rate of heat transfer depends on the surface area and the fourth power of the absolute temperature:
$\frac{Q}{t}=\sigma eA{T}^{4}\text{,}$

where $\sigma =5\text{.67}×{\text{10}}^{-8}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J/s}\cdot {\text{m}}^{2}\cdot {\text{K}}^{4}$ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and $e$ is the emissivity of the body. For a black body, $e=1$ whereas a shiny white or perfect reflector has $e=0$ , with real objects having values of $e$ between 1 and 0. The net rate of heat transfer by radiation is

$\frac{{Q}_{\text{net}}}{t}=\sigma eA\left({T}_{2}^{4}-{T}_{1}^{4}\right)$

where ${T}_{1}$ is the temperature of an object surrounded by an environment with uniform temperature ${T}_{2}$ and $e$ is the emissivity of the object .

## Conceptual questions

When watching a daytime circus in a large, dark-colored tent, you sense significant heat transfer from the tent. Explain why this occurs.

Satellites designed to observe the radiation from cold (3 K) dark space have sensors that are shaded from the Sun, Earth, and Moon and that are cooled to very low temperatures. Why must the sensors be at low temperature?

Why are cloudy nights generally warmer than clear ones?

Why are thermometers that are used in weather stations shielded from the sunshine? What does a thermometer measure if it is shielded from the sunshine and also if it is not?

On average, would Earth be warmer or cooler without the atmosphere? Explain your answer.

## Problems&Exercises

At what net rate does heat radiate from a $\text{275}{\text{-m}}^{2}$ black roof on a night when the roof’s temperature is $\text{30.}0º\text{C}$ and the surrounding temperature is $\text{15.}0º\text{C}$ ? The emissivity of the roof is 0.900.

Note that the negative answer implies heat loss to the surroundings.

(a) Cherry-red embers in a fireplace are at $\text{850º}\text{C}$ and have an exposed area of and an emissivity of 0.980. The surrounding room has a temperature of $\text{18}\text{.}0º\text{C}$ . If 50% of the radiant energy enters the room, what is the net rate of radiant heat transfer in kilowatts? (b) Does your answer support the contention that most of the heat transfer into a room by a fireplace comes from infrared radiation?

what is Andromeda
what is velocity
displacement per unit time
Murlidhar
the ratec of displacement over time
Jamie
the rate of displacement over time
Jamie
the rate of displacement over time
Jamie
did you need it right now
Pathani
up to tomorrow
Santosh
i need a description and derivation of kinetic theory of gas
Santosh
pls the sum of change in kinetic and potential energy is always what ?
Faith
i need a description and derivation of kinetic theory of gas
Santosh
did you need it right now
Pathani
A few grains of table salt were put in a cup of cold water kept at constant temperature and left undisturbed. eventually all the water tasted salty. this is due to?
Aunt Faith,please i am thinking the dissolution here from the word "solution" exposed the grains of salt to be dissolved in the water.Thankyou
Junior
Junior
Aunt Faith,please i am thinking the dissolution here from the word "solution" exposed the grains of salt to be dissolved in the water.Thankyou
Junior
it is either diffusion or osmosis. just confused
Faith
due to solvation....
Pathani
what is solvation pls
Faith
water molecule surround the salt molecules . solute solute attraction break in the same manner solvent solvent interaction also break. as a result solute and solvent attraction took place.
Pathani
okay thanks
Faith
my pleasure
Pathani
what is solvation pls
Faith
water act as a solvent and salt act as solute
Pathani
okay thanks
Faith
its ok
Pathani
due to solvation....
Pathani
water molecule surround the salt molecules . solute solute attraction break in the same manner solvent solvent interaction also break. as a result solute and solvent attraction took place.
Pathani
what is magnetism
physical phenomena arising from force caused by magnets
is the phenomenon of attracting magnetic substance like iron, cobalt etc.
Faith
what is heat
Heat is a form of energy where molecules move
saran
topic-- question
Salman
I know this is unrelated to physics, but how do I get the MCQs and essay to work. they arent clickable.
20cm3 of 1mol/dm3 solution of a monobasic acid HA and 20cm3 of 1mol/dm3 solution of NaOH are mixed in a calorimeter and a temperature rise of 274K is observed. If the heat capacity of the calorimeter is 160J/K, calculate the enthalpy of neutralization of the acid.(SHCw=4.2J/g/K) Formula. (ms*cs+C)*T
why is a body moving at a constant speed able to accelerate
20cm3 of 1mol/dm3 solution of a monobasic acid HA and 20cm3 of 1mol/dm3 solution of NaOH are mixed in a calorimeter and a temperature rise of 274K is observed. If the heat capacity of the calorimeter is 160J/K, calculate the enthalpy of neutralization of the acid.(SHCw=4.2J/g/K) Formula. (ms*cs+C)*T
Lilian
because it changes only direction and the speed is kept constant
Justice
Why is the sky blue...?
It's filtered light from the 2 forms of radiation emitted from the sun. It's mainly filtered UV rays. There's a theory titled Scatter Theory that covers this topic
Mike
A heating coil of resistance 30π is connected to a 240v supply for 5min to boil a quantity of water in a vessel of heat capacity 200jk. If the initial temperature of water is 20°c and it specific heat capacity is 4200jkgk calculate the mass of water in a vessel
A thin equi convex lens is placed on a horizontal plane mirror and a pin held 20 cm vertically above the lens concise in position with its own image the space between the undersurface of d lens and the mirror is filled with water (refractive index =1•33)and then to concise with d image d pin has to
Be raised until its distance from d lens is 27cm find d radius of curvature
Azummiri
what happens when a nuclear bomb and atom bomb bomb explode add the same time near each other
A monkey throws a coconut straight upwards from a coconut tree with a velocity of 10 ms-1. The coconut tree is 30 m high. Calculate the maximum height of the coconut from the top of the coconut tree? Can someone answer my question
v2 =u2 - 2gh 02 =10x10 - 2x9.8xh h = 100 ÷ 19.6 answer = 30 - h.
Ramonyai
why is the north side is always referring to n side of magnetic