<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
S = s s + 1 h ( s = 1 / 2 for electrons), size 12{s=1/2} {}

where s size 12{s} {} is defined to be the spin quantum number    . This is very similar to the quantization of L size 12{L} {} given in L = l l + 1 h size 12{L= sqrt {l left (l+1 right )} { {h} over {2π} } } {} , except that the only value allowed for s size 12{s} {} for electrons is 1/2.

The direction of intrinsic spin is quantized , just as is the direction of orbital angular momentum. The direction of spin angular momentum along one direction in space, again called the z size 12{z} {} -axis, can have only the values

S z = m s h size 12{S rSub { size 8{z} } =m rSub { size 8{s} } { {h} over {2π} } } {} m s = 1 2 , + 1 2 size 12{ left (m rSub { size 8{s} } = - { {1} over {2} } , + { {1} over {2} } right )} {}

for electrons. S z size 12{S rSub { size 8{z} } } {} is the z size 12{z} {} -component of spin angular momentum and m s size 12{S rSub { size 8{z} } } {} is the spin projection quantum number    . For electrons, s size 12{s} {} can only be 1/2, and m s size 12{m rSub { size 8{s} } } {} can be either +1/2 or –1/2. Spin projection m s =+ 1 / 2 size 12{m rSub { size 8{s} } "=+"1/2} {} is referred to as spin up , whereas m s = 1 / 2 size 12{m rSub { size 8{s} } = - 1/2} {} is called spin down . These are illustrated in [link] .

Intrinsic spin

In later chapters, we will see that intrinsic spin is a characteristic of all subatomic particles. For some particles s size 12{s} {} is half-integral, whereas for others s size 12{s} {} is integral—there are crucial differences between half-integral spin particles and integral spin particles. Protons and neutrons, like electrons, have s = 1 / 2 size 12{s=1/2} {} , whereas photons have s = 1 size 12{s=1} {} , and other particles called pions have s = 0 size 12{s=0} {} , and so on.

To summarize, the state of a system, such as the precise nature of an electron in an atom, is determined by its particular quantum numbers. These are expressed in the form n, l, m l , m s —see [link] For electrons in atoms , the principal quantum number can have the values n = 1, 2, 3, ... . Once n is known, the values of the angular momentum quantum number are limited to l = 1, 2, 3, ... , n 1 . For a given value of l , the angular momentum projection quantum number can have only the values m l = l , l + 1, ... , 1, 0, 1, ... , l 1, l . Electron spin is independent of n, l, and m l , always having s = 1 / 2 . The spin projection quantum number can have two values, m s = 1 / 2 or 1 / 2 .

Atomic quantum numbers
Name Symbol Allowed values
Principal quantum number n 1, 2, 3, ...
Angular momentum l 0, 1, 2, ... n 1
Angular momentum projection m l l , l + 1, ... , 1, 0, 1, ... , l 1, l ( or 0, ±1, ±2, ... , ± l )
Spin The spin quantum number s is usually not stated, since it is always 1/2 for electrons s 1/2 ( electrons )
Spin projection m s 1/2, + 1/2

[link] shows several hydrogen states corresponding to different sets of quantum numbers. Note that these clouds of probability are the locations of electrons as determined by making repeated measurements—each measurement finds the electron in a definite location, with a greater chance of finding the electron in some places rather than others. With repeated measurements, the pattern of probability shown in the figure emerges. The clouds of probability do not look like nor do they correspond to classical orbits. The uncertainty principle actually prevents us and nature from knowing how the electron gets from one place to another, and so an orbit really does not exist as such. Nature on a small scale is again much different from that on the large scale.

The image shows probability clouds for the electron in the ground state and several excited states of hydrogen. Sets of quantum numbers given as n l m subscript l are shown for each state. The ground state is zero zero zero. The probability of finding the electron is indicated by the shade of color.
Probability clouds for the electron in the ground state and several excited states of hydrogen. The nature of these states is determined by their sets of quantum numbers, here given as n , l , m l size 12{ left (n, l, m rSub { size 8{l} } right )} {} . The ground state is (0, 0, 0); one of the possibilities for the second excited state is (3, 2, 1). The probability of finding the electron is indicated by the shade of color; the darker the coloring the greater the chance of finding the electron.

We will see that the quantum numbers discussed in this section are valid for a broad range of particles and other systems, such as nuclei. Some quantum numbers, such as intrinsic spin, are related to fundamental classifications of subatomic particles, and they obey laws that will give us further insight into the substructure of matter and its interactions.

Phet explorations: stern-gerlach experiment

The classic Stern-Gerlach Experiment shows that atoms have a property called spin. Spin is a kind of intrinsic angular momentum, which has no classical counterpart. When the z-component of the spin is measured, one always gets one of two values: spin up or spin down.

Stern-Gerlach Experiment

Section summary

  • Quantum numbers are used to express the allowed values of quantized entities. The principal quantum number n size 12{n} {} labels the basic states of a system and is given by
    n = 1, 2, 3, . . . . size 12{n=1, 2, 3, "." "." "." } {}
  • The magnitude of angular momentum is given by
    L = l l + 1 h l = 0, 1, 2, ... , n 1 ,
    where l size 12{l} {} is the angular momentum quantum number. The direction of angular momentum is quantized, in that its component along an axis defined by a magnetic field, called the z size 12{z} {} -axis is given by
    L z = m l h size 12{L rSub { size 8{z} } =m rSub { size 8{l} } { {h} over {2π} } } {} m l = l , l + 1, ... , 1, 0, 1, ... l 1, l ,
    where L z size 12{L rSub { size 8{z} } } {} is the z size 12{z} {} -component of the angular momentum and m l size 12{m rSub { size 8{l} } } {} is the angular momentum projection quantum number. Similarly, the electron’s intrinsic spin angular momentum S size 12{S} {} is given by
    S = s s + 1 h ( size 12{S= sqrt {s left (s+1 right )} { {h} over {2π} } } {} s = 1 / 2 for electrons), size 12{s=1/2} {}
    s size 12{s} {} is defined to be the spin quantum number. Finally, the direction of the electron’s spin along the z size 12{z} {} -axis is given by
    S z = m s h size 12{S rSub { size 8{z} } =m rSub { size 8{s} } { {h} over {2π} } } {} m s = 1 2 , + 1 2 , size 12{ left (m rSub { size 8{s} } = - { {1} over {2} } , + { {1} over {2} } right )} {}
    where S z size 12{S rSub { size 8{z} } } {} is the z size 12{z} {} -component of spin angular momentum and m s size 12{m rSub { size 8{s} } } {} is the spin projection quantum number. Spin projection m s =+ 1 / 2 size 12{m rSub { size 8{s} } "=+"1/2} {} is referred to as spin up, whereas m s = 1 / 2 size 12{m rSub { size 8{s} } = - 1/2} {} is called spin down. [link] summarizes the atomic quantum numbers and their allowed values.

Conceptual questions

Define the quantum numbers n, l, m l , s , and m s size 12{m rSub { size 8{s} } } {} .

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

For a given value of n size 12{n} {} , what are the allowed values of l size 12{l} {} ?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

For a given value of l size 12{l} {} , what are the allowed values of m l size 12{m rSub { size 8{l} } } {} ? What are the allowed values of m l size 12{m rSub { size 8{l} } } {} for a given value of n size 12{n} {} ? Give an example in each case.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

List all the possible values of s size 12{s} {} and m s size 12{m rSub { size 8{s} } } {} for an electron. Are there particles for which these values are different? The same?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Problem exercises

If an atom has an electron in the n = 5 size 12{n=5} {} state with m l = 3 size 12{m rSub { size 8{l} } =3} {} , what are the possible values of l size 12{l} {} ?

l = 4, 3 are possible since l < n size 12{l<n} {} and m l l size 12{ lline m rSub { size 8{l} } rline {underline {<}} l} {} .

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

An atom has an electron with m l = 2 size 12{m rSub { size 8{l} } =2} {} . What is the smallest value of n size 12{n} {} for this electron?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

What are the possible values of m l size 12{m rSub { size 8{l} } } {} for an electron in the n = 4 size 12{n=4} {} state?

n = 4 l = 3, 2, 1, 0 m l = ± 3, ± 2, ± 1, 0 are possible.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

What, if any, constraints does a value of m l = 1 size 12{m rSub { size 8{l} } =1} {} place on the other quantum numbers for an electron in an atom?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

(a) Calculate the magnitude of the angular momentum for an l = 1 size 12{l=1} {} electron. (b) Compare your answer to the value Bohr proposed for the n = 1 size 12{n=1} {} state.

(a) 1 . 49 × 10 34 J s size 12{1 "." "49" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "34"} } " J" cdot s} {}

(b) 1 . 06 × 10 34 J s size 12{1 "." "06" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "34"} } " J" cdot s} {}

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

(a) What is the magnitude of the angular momentum for an l = 1 size 12{l=1} {} electron? (b) Calculate the magnitude of the electron’s spin angular momentum. (c) What is the ratio of these angular momenta?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Repeat [link] for l = 3 size 12{l=3} {} .

(a) 3 . 66 × 10 34 J s size 12{3 "." "66" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "34"} } " J" cdot s} {}

(b) s = 9 . 13 × 10 35 J s size 12{s=9 "." "14" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "35"} } " J" cdot s} {}

(c) L S = 12 3 / 4 = 4 size 12{ { {L} over {S} } = { { sqrt {"12"} } over { sqrt {3/4} } } =4} {}

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

(a) How many angles can L size 12{L} {} make with the z size 12{z} {} -axis for an l = 2 size 12{l=2} {} electron? (b) Calculate the value of the smallest angle.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

What angles can the spin S size 12{S} {} of an electron make with the z size 12{z} {} -axis?

θ = 54.7º, 125.3º

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

Calculate the work done by an 85.0-kg man who pushes a crate 4.00 m up along a ramp that makes an angle of 20.0º20.0º with the horizontal. (See [link] .) He exerts a force of 500 N on the crate parallel to the ramp and moves at a constant speed. Be certain to include the work he does on the crate an
Collins Reply
What is thermal heat all about
Abel Reply
why uniform circular motion is called a periodic motion?.
Boniface Reply
when a train start from A & it returns at same station A . what is its acceleration?
Mwdan Reply
what is distance of A to B of the stations and what is the time taken to reach B from A
BELLO
the information provided is not enough
aliyu
Hmmmm maybe the question is logical
yusuf
where are the parameters for calculation
HENRY
there is enough information to calculate an AVERAGE acceleration
Kwok
mistake, there is enough information to calculate an average velocity
Kwok
~\
Abel
what is the unit of momentum
Abel
wha are the types of radioactivity ?
Worku Reply
what are the types of radioactivity
Worku
what is static friction
Golu Reply
It is the opposite of kinetic friction
Mark
static fiction is friction between two surfaces in contact an none of sliding over on another, while Kinetic friction is friction between sliding surfaces in contact.
MINDERIUM
I don't get it,if it's static then there will be no friction.
author
It means that static friction is that friction that most be overcome before a body can move
kingsley
static friction is a force that keeps an object from moving, and it's the opposite of kinetic friction.
author
It is a force a body must overcome in order for the body to move.
Eboh
If a particle accelerator explodes what happens
Eboh
why we see the edge effect in case of the field lines of capacitor?
Arnab
what is wave
Muhammed Reply
what is force
Muhammed
force is something which is responsible for the object to change its position
MINDERIUM
more technically it is the product of mass of an object and Acceleration produced in it
MINDERIUM
wave is disturbance in any medium
iqra
energy is distributed in any medium through particles of medium.
iqra
If a particle accelerator explodes what happens
Eboh Reply
we have to first figure out .... wats a particle accelerator first
Teh
What is surface tension
Subi Reply
The resistive force of surface.
iqra
Who can tutor me on simple harmonic motion
yusuf Reply
on both a string and peldulum?
Anya
spring*
Anya
Yea
yusuf
Do you have a chit-chat contact
yusuf
I dont have social media but i do have an email?
Anya
Which is
yusuf
Where are you chatting from
yusuf
I don't understand the basics of this group
Jimmy
teach him SHM init
Anya
Simple harmonic motion
yusuf
how.an.equipotential.line is two dimension and equipotential surface is three dimension ?
syed Reply
definition of mass of conversion
umezurike Reply
Force equals mass time acceleration. Weight is a force and it can replace force in the equation. The acceleration would be gravity, which is an acceleration. To change from weight to mass divide by gravity (9.8 m/s^2).
Marisa
how many subject is in physics
Adeshina Reply
the write question should be " How many Topics are in O- Level Physics, or other branches of physics.
effiom
how many topic are in physics
Praise
Praise what level are you
yusuf
If u are doing a levels in your first year you do AS topics therefore you do 5 big topic i.e particles radiation, waves and optics, mechanics,materials, electricity. After that you do A level topics like Specific Harmonic motion circular motion astrophysics depends really
Anya
Yeah basics of physics prin8
yusuf
Heat nd Co for a level
yusuf
yh I need someone to explain something im tryna solve . I'll send the question if u down for it
Tamdy Reply
a ripple tank experiment a vibrating plane is used to generate wrinkles in the water .if the distance between two successive point is 3.5cm and the wave travel a distance of 31.5cm find the frequency of the vibration
Tamdy
hallow
Boniface
please send the answer
Boniface
the range of objects and phenomena studied in physics is
Bethel Reply
I don't know please give the answer
Boniface
Practice Key Terms 7

Get the best College physics course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'College physics' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask