# 4.8 Extended topic: the four basic forces—an introduction  (Page 5/7)

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International collaboration in this area is moving into space with the joint EU/US project LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna). Earthquakes and other Earthly noises will be no problem for these monitoring spacecraft. LISA will complement LIGO by looking at much more massive black holes through the observation of gravitational-wave sources emitting much larger wavelengths. Three satellites will be placed in space above Earth in an equilateral triangle (with 5,000,000-km sides) ( [link] ). The system will measure the relative positions of each satellite to detect passing gravitational waves. Accuracy to within 10% of the size of an atom will be needed to detect any waves. The launch of this project might be as early as 2018.

“I’m sure LIGO will tell us something about the universe that we didn’t know before. The history of science tells us that any time you go where you haven’t been before, you usually find something that really shakes the scientific paradigms of the day. Whether gravitational wave astrophysics will do that, only time will tell.” —David Reitze, LIGO Input Optics Manager, University of Florida

The ideas presented in this section are but a glimpse into topics of modern physics that will be covered in much greater depth in later chapters.

## Summary

• The various types of forces that are categorized for use in many applications are all manifestations of the four basic forces in nature.
• The properties of these forces are summarized in [link] .
• Everything we experience directly without sensitive instruments is due to either electromagnetic forces or gravitational forces. The nuclear forces are responsible for the submicroscopic structure of matter, but they are not directly sensed because of their short ranges. Attempts are being made to show all four forces are different manifestations of a single unified force.
• A force field surrounds an object creating a force and is the carrier of that force.

## Conceptual questions

Explain, in terms of the properties of the four basic forces, why people notice the gravitational force acting on their bodies if it is such a comparatively weak force.

What is the dominant force between astronomical objects? Why are the other three basic forces less significant over these very large distances?

Give a detailed example of how the exchange of a particle can result in an attractive force. (For example, consider one child pulling a toy out of the hands of another.)

## Problem exercises

(a) What is the strength of the weak nuclear force relative to the strong nuclear force? (b) What is the strength of the weak nuclear force relative to the electromagnetic force? Since the weak nuclear force acts at only very short distances, such as inside nuclei, where the strong and electromagnetic forces also act, it might seem surprising that we have any knowledge of it at all. We have such knowledge because the weak nuclear force is responsible for beta decay, a type of nuclear decay not explained by other forces.

(a) $1×{\text{10}}^{-\text{13}}$

(b) $1×{\text{10}}^{-\text{11}}$

(a) What is the ratio of the strength of the gravitational force to that of the strong nuclear force? (b) What is the ratio of the strength of the gravitational force to that of the weak nuclear force? (c) What is the ratio of the strength of the gravitational force to that of the electromagnetic force? What do your answers imply about the influence of the gravitational force on atomic nuclei?

What is the ratio of the strength of the strong nuclear force to that of the electromagnetic force? Based on this ratio, you might expect that the strong force dominates the nucleus, which is true for small nuclei. Large nuclei, however, have sizes greater than the range of the strong nuclear force. At these sizes, the electromagnetic force begins to affect nuclear stability. These facts will be used to explain nuclear fusion and fission later in this text.

${\text{10}}^{2}$

A body travelling at a velocity of 30ms^-1 in a straight line is brought to rest by application of brakes. if it covers a distance of 100m during this period, find the retardation.
what's acceleration
The change in position of an object with respect to time
Mfizi
Acceleration is velocity all over time
Pamilerin
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Stephen
It's not It's the change of velocity relative to time
Laura
Velocity is the change of position relative to time
Laura
acceleration it is the rate of change in velocity with time
Stephen
acceleration is change in velocity per rate of time
Noara
what is ohm's law
Stephen
Ohm's law is related to resistance by which volatge is the multiplication of current and resistance ( U=RI)
Laura
how i don understand
how do I access the Multiple Choice Questions? the button never works and the essay one doesn't either
How do you determine the magnitude of force
mass × acceleration OR Work done ÷ distance
Seema
Which eye defect is corrected by a lens having different curvatures in two perpendicular directions?
acute astigmatism?
the difference between virtual work and virtual displacement
How do you calculate uncertainties
What is Elasticity
using a micro-screw gauge,the thickness of a piece of a A4 white paper is measured to be 0.5+or-0.05 mm. If the length of the A4 paper is 26+or-0.2 cm, determine the volume of the A4 paper in: a). Cubic centimeters b). Cubic meters
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why it is possible for an object(man) to stay on air without falling down?
its impossible, what do you mean exactly?
Ryan
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Emmanuella
it's impossible
Your
Why is it not possible to stand in air?
bikko
the air molecules are very light enough to oppose the gravitational pull of the earth on the man..... hence, freefall occurs
Arzail
because of gravitational forces
Pamilerin
this mostly occur in space
Stephen
what is physics
no life without physics ....that should tell you something
Exactly
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E=MC^2
study of matter and energy and an inter-relation between them.
Minahil
that's how the mass and energy are related in stationery frame
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Kinetic energy is the energy due to montion of waves,electrons,atoms, molecule,substances an object s.
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meteor are the glowy (i.e. heated when the enter into our atmosphere) parts of meteoroids. now, meteoroids are the debris resulting from the collision of asteroids or comets. yes, it occurs in daytime too, but due to the daylight, we cant observe it as clearly as in night
Arzail
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Hilal
hello guys
Waka
wich method we use to find the potential on a grounded sphere
Noman
hello
Pamilerin
Physics is the science that studies everything around us from the smallest things like quarks to the biggest things like galaxies. It's simply everything.
Laura
Good day everyone
Divine
It talks mainly about matter with related topics such as forces energy gravity and time. It's amazing
Laura
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Alpha
Physics generally is the study of everything around us.
Steven
physics is the branch of sceince
shafiu
physics is the branch of sceince that deal with motion
shafiu
physics is the branch of sceince that deal with motion &energy
shafiu
with out a physics the life is nothing to see
What do you want to talk about😋😋
Emmanuella
the study of all the natural events occuring around us..... this is Physics (until those events obey the laws of physics)
Arzail
Conservation of energy😰
Emmanuella
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Arzail
Energy, it always remains there in a physical system. it can only take the form either in motion (kinetic energy) or in rest (potential energy)
Arzail
In nature organisms feed on one another in an orderly way.
Emmanuella
that describes the food chain, in which we humans are at the top
Arzail
The energy that came initially from the sun 🌞is converted into a form in which it can be stored in green plant.
Emmanuella
Therefore, there is conservation of energy.
Emmanuella
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